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Weekly, September 17, 1921, 100: 780.The correspondence of this character has almostdisappeared from the press owing to the great increase in the useof the cable, 36 the enormous expansion of foreign travel in times ofpeace, and the multiplicity of authoritative guidebooks toEuropean cities.Hale shouldnot be published in December.His most serious preparation has sometimes seemed to be his plans for circumventingthe censor.The conflict between the ambitious essayist and thenecessitous reporteris portrayed by Philip Gibbs, The Street of Adventure.Uanndeapparentlymatter minnocuous, and texterior.

The Democratic National Committee sent out a cartoon that was published in the daily press of November 5, 1916.These differences are evident in the country press and in themetropolitan press.But in spite of all the adverse criticisms that may reasonably bebrought against the interview, it still forms a part of the newspaper.The War Office objects to hispresence and is willing to do nothing for him.This secures to every periodical, at least in theory, undernormal conditions, absolute freedom in the publication of newsand in the expression of opinion so far as each periodical choosesto exercise this freedom.

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The Reporters Gallery is an elaborate organization for the spreading of news of the Imperial Parliament to all the ends of theearth.The staff correspondent is theregularly appointed resident representative of the press at homeand foreign capitals.Expansion of skeleton messagesFalse impressions created by correspondents.Specialization improving his work.Inall advertising by governmentagencies, he finds in the foregroundtheideas of loyalty and patriotism, butno suggestion as to whetherthe patriotism is that defined by Dr.Withthe transference of the ownership from an individual to that ofa stock company the relative importance of the editor and ofthe editorial has apparently declined while that of the businessmanager is in the ascendant.Is this a reasonable taste?

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With a ParticularRelation of the State of Learning In each Country.Constitution ofthe United States the recognition of the existence of God.Newspaper records its own times.They want prouane, ono ma.Journalism and Literature, pp.

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Roosevelt have been anathema to more than oneotherwise independent newspaper; free trade and protection areantagonistic and the support of one by the press implies thecondemnation of the other.John Wanamaker wasstated by the Democratic National Committee to be responsible for a fullpage advertisement appearing in the leading papers in the largest citiesof Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Delaware, andWest Virginia.And it is the illustration again that reconstructs the servicesrendered by the dog in time of war where he is trained to act asscout and rescuer.There is no fixed time for quitting inall the bright lexicon of journalistic accomplishment.Is the editorial declining.This is fine,And bears a brave relation!

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Wide range of interests disclosed480But reconstruct only favorable conditions.The word advertisement in the modern sense was not used until about1660.It must suffice to note here a few othertendencies, not necessarily the most important or the mostconspicuous, but tendencies somewhat general in scope thathave characterized a changing press.The metropolitan papers disclose an exoteric interest in life andgive news in regard to what prominent citizens of their communities are doing elsewhere, where they are traveling, and the socialattentions shown them.Changing social status of reporter.Popiſts iuggle ſtrangely ofſuch and the like counſellers.

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The officefilled is an important one, the officer filling it is a successful man,the interview is sought concerning an unfamiliar subject, and itderives its importance from the individual giving it, not fromthe interview itself.The gift of conspicuous honors to members of the press has notbeen confined to the governments of the West.The critics ofRussell have upheld the cause of Lord Raglan on the ground ofhis popularity among his officers and also on the ground that thewar correspondents were meddlers who should not have criticizedmilitary conditions.The historian must concern himselfprimarily with the press, rather than with journalism.Nopublisher in the United States had ever made such an offer.

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He objected to the anonymous attacks of the religious press, andothers as well as Maurice realized the lack of effort on the partof the religious press to state truthfully the actual nature of theviews they were opposing.Peter beforethe high altar.Nixon, History of theNational Amateur Press Association.London Gazette after the Restoration 94 andhas been generally accepted in spite of the obvious limitationsin its use.The official version of the first important Zeppelin raid on Londonwas limited to fifty words.

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Credit must at least be given to the press for keeping languagein a fluid state.But the opposite tendency is indicated by Dr.Is dramatic criticism necessary?Side of the war correspondent.Multiplicity of sources a possible handicap.His divergence ofopinion from the opinions of his subordinates may be as troublesome as is his divergence from the views of proprietors.

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The French have emphasizedthe caricature, the English the cartoon, Americans the illustrationpure and simple, and the Germans a special form of cartoon.In time of peace the photographmay be so manipulated as to magnify the walls of snow thatline the streets of a city and thus the illustration may be usedto oust a street commissioner objectionable to the politicians incontrol, or it may reduce in height the piles of accumulatedstreet refuse and thus help to keep in office an inefficient deputycommissioner; it may magnify and distort the cracks in the wallsof a building and thus turn a building inspector out of office.The illustrated press of political parties must be used withqualifications.Editors of the old school.The camera is the most hated partof the outfit of the war correspondent.

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The readingpublic alone has no financial interest in reviews, but desiresadequate service, which it does not get and is, therefore, dissatisfied as are the commercial interests involved because the returnsare incommensurate with the efforts expended.The great age of the editor and of the editorial has been held to be the period dating from about 1830 to about 1890, although examples of them are still found.The Times, in order to maintain its circulation, criticises freely everybody and everything.The opposite attitude is taken by the provincial press and this serves as a medium of communicationamong the neighboring places and as a clearing house for thelocal news of all the surrounding country villages where it maintains a large staff of local correspondents.Press and Church live side by side in astate of armed neutrality.Cartaxo, December 10, 1810.The Diary is made up of the letters sent by Labouchere from Paris to theLondon Daily News.

Registration also assures regularity of appearance.Question of venality of the press.These statements have become classic, the list isapparently never lengthened, and constant repetition has givenit the force of authority.The Well of English, and the Bucket, pp.Persons who do not effusively welcome an interview areoften described as snobs and aristocrats in return for the coolreception accorded the interviewer, and social climbers may behelped up by the publicity given by aspiring interviewers.Here is cydings, that bervveen theKing ofOne of Prage, she s of November.

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Its craze for strongsensations has led to the present low status of war correspondence.But thisvalue is modified or affected by the mechanical difficulties ofreproduction, by the standards of taste on the part of bothartist and reader, by the varying grades of intelligence amongthose for whom the illustration is made, by the degree of artisticability shown by the illustrator, and by the amount of jurisdiction over it exercised by editorial or governmental authorities.To respect confidences is with them a counselof prudence as well as a law of honour; for no statesman is likely to run therisk of being betrayed a second time.Foreigners ought notto regard the Times as representing the English Nation.The New York Tribune for November 6,1872, called attention on its editorial page to a compilation published onanother page of letters from various states inviting immigration.Reid, Memoirs of Sir Wemyss Reid, pp.

All hands in thatimmense crowd went up.FrontispieceFrom a statue in Paris.Ulster CountyGazette, 420.If society hasbeen honeycombed with slander, intrigue, and scandal, a disreputable press has appeared that has purveyed to all these eviltendencies.This is illustrated in the volume called Reprints of The Times and other early English Newspapers.

The interviewer at the Second Hague Conference.The army willinglyendures privation and hardship in their most extreme form butit is averse to having these seemingly take the form of a dressparade.The recent war hasgiven rise to a large addition of new symbols, each of the contending parties having its own set of symbols.Klaw and Erlanger, Life vs.This is not true of other parts of the paper.

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New York Evening Post in aneditorial, February 5, 1914.Journals in France and Italy, I, 273, written from Paris, October 26,1850.See also Censorship; Regulation of press.Answers to Correspondents in a prudently conducted journal willrecognize the principal types of oracle.My obligations to others seem out of all proportion to the results visible in the book.

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Independent, January 31, 1916, 85: 146.Reduction in price may indicate a desire for alarger circulation or a wish to reach a different class of readers.Jones coming off the press at therate of over twenty thousand copies an hour, I knew I was assisting at a revolution in art which would be as wide reaching as that started by Dürer or byBewick.Increased circulation both cause and resultNewspaper no longer a personal organ.Add my name and I am notashamed of the association.

French Revolution and the careerof Napoleon had stimulated thought, and the age of mechanicalinvention was making it possible.Abroad at Home, pp.Bohemia and the school of journalism; the personal and professional relations of members of the press.McCullough of the St.BACON, Henry1866BABBITT, Irving1916architectThese biographical notes it is hoped may be of service in showing the approximate period of the writers who have been cited.Remus, Uncle, songs and fables of, 106.

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One of the most important uses to which the advertisementhas been put has been that of combating crime, 69 and in sharpcontrast, is the use of the advertisement in simplifying the choosing of Christmas gifts.New York Times,March 31, 1915.The Church in its variousbranches becomes responsible for theofficial announcements of its religious services, for information inregard to the increase or decrease in its membership, for factsconcerning its missionary and charitable undertakings, and forthe published programmes of its stated local, state and nationalmeetings.Watts on the editor.See also Editorials; Letters tothe editor; Personal journalism.

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Atkins, The Life of Sir William Howard Russell, II, 67.But a very different problem is presented when the question israised as to how far the editorial expresses public opinion andhow far it carries in itself a guarantee that justifies the historianin making use of it.APPENDIX IIBIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTESThe great source for the study of the newspaper must be the newspaper itself.Obverse of the shield.The development of the periodical press has everywhere partlycaused, partly resulted from, a change in thementalattitudeof itsreaders.

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Letters from and to Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, I, 351, 353.Suchlimitations are so apparent that they not only can never be misleading, but they in effect become guarantees of the reliability ofsuch newspapers within the limited field occupied.London hotels, the various embassies, and perhapsthe British Foreign Office, and the large business houseswith whichthe correspondent must establish connection.Seitz, Paul Jones, 1917.New York Times, August 13, 1921.While commercial advertising as yet takesup the greatest space in the press, it is by no means the mostimportant of all classes of advertising.

Carlyle on the editor.Nor wasJohn Bright alone in thinking that The Times never said the samething.With the close of the war the subjectpassed into oblivion.Danby, Earl of, his attempt to suppressCurtis Publishing Co.Cape Fear Mercury, forged facsimile of,416.Russell, The War: from the Landing at Gallipoli to the Death ofLord Raglan; The War: from the Death of Lord Raglan to the Evacuation ofthe Crimea.

The criminal may give a series of interviews allmutually contradictory.The medical code of ethics as yet prevents advertising by reputablephysicians.These statements so accorded with popular sentiment thatsome persons paid for their publication as an advertisement in the DailyNews and other newspapers.Picture journalismfurnishes the most available and the mostvaluable materials for the historian of manners.Errors are almost inevitable when reports are transmitted through an unfamiliar language, or when seeminglyunnecessary words are omitted and have to be filled in.Zeitung Leads them All!Nothing shows so conclusively as does a comparison of illustrations through a series of years the changes that have come in theway in which holidays are celebrated.

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Closely allied to the question of the authenticity of periodical literature is that of the identification of the authorship of letters published in the press.Dryden, John, 104, 318.Effect of controversy on periodical press.The coronation of EdwardVII of England was arranged to take place June 26, 1901, and aLondon weekly not only wrote but also printed an elaborateaccount of the ceremony, and included in it an adverse criticismof an opera at Covent Garden that was never given.Errors with a purpose.The journalisticactivities of Napoleon have recently been made the subject of anexhaustive study.To be a good interviewer demands a knowledge and skill beyondthe ready belief of a layman.

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America has beenless affected by pessimism than has the European press, but it isa question of degree rather than of one of fundamental difference.Early efforts to stimulate circulation.Thus, for example, the following swindlewas perpetrated by a Roman newspaper.The reports of the transactions of the stock exchange, ofdividends declared on bank deposits and on corporation stocks,of real estate transfers, ofmarket sales and purchases must all beaccepted as authoritative.British andthe French governments refused mail and cable privileges tothe International News Service because the Hearst papers thatsubscribed to this service had violated the censorship and hadpublished exaggerated or false dispatches purporting to havebeen cabled to the United States from Europe.They took advantage of the situationand incidentally advertised the business and personal advantagesof courtesy, politeness, good manners, correct habits, and etiquette in the use of the telephone, and parallel principles for theguidance of telephone operatives were widely advertised.An interesting, but probably unique, illustration of the connectionbetween the newspaper and the official side of education has been theMoscow Gazette, the property of the University of Moscow that publishedit under the privilege granted by the Empress Elizabeth about the middleof the eighteenth century.

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Madison, in the library of the American Antiquarian Society at Worcester, Mass.Announcement of a coming shortage of coal was made by advertisement as was the later welcome news that anthracite coalwas available for all purposes in any quantity, 50 and also the44 New York Tribune, August 9, 1917.Journal, between the years 1716 and 1729.Sir Roland Blennerhassett has somewhat recently disclosed the efforts of Napoleon III in this direction.American War every intendedmovement of the American forces was published in Americanjournals.Franklin with others, seated in hisgarden.

Dasent, John Thadeus Delane, I, 68.Robert Dell, long the Paris correspondent of theManchester Guardian, was expelled by the French Governmentbecause his political comments seemed objectionable.Yet how unwelcomethey were to the government officials at home and to the commanding officers in the field is abundantly evident from all thecontemporaneous records.The question of official reporting does not end with the rightof reporting the proceedings of representative legislative bodies,although it has involved more bitter controversy than have otherbranches of the subject.The editorial not only covers a wider range of subjects thanever before but it discusses them with a breadth and depth notknown in the earlier editorial.When the denialof the interview has been made, the interviewer may shield himself behind the statement that ignorance of a foreign languagemay have led him to misunderstand the person said to have giventhe interview, 13 or he may charge errors to the compositor, 14 or hemay leave the field without apology.BlanJerrol and Catlin.

The Times, the latter published thecorrespondence in the Rochdale Observer.Athenians, and strangers who were there, spent their time in nothing else, but either to tell or to hear some new thing.You have yet to learn the magic virtue of callingyourself we.Public men are fair game.The newspaper historically has had three distinct functions; the first was to publish the news, the second was to interpret the news and thereby to influence public opinion, the third has been to gain success as a business enterprise.No Egyptian taskmaster ever devised a slavery like to that,our slavery.In England the character of journalism is certainlyfalling.

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Babbitt, Irving, on critics and criticism,Bee, 47.Development of new interests shown.Delane and the Civil War.Wee underſtand, char Bucquoy hach rides more then 6000men Naine, though moltnorbeen in the the Duke orSaxen on theKings ſide, alſo hach the enimic gorcenfom cercainedayes, therefore vve are to looke of the King ſom pecces of Orderuauoce andto our ſelves, for feare of Trecherie.It is found somewhat frequently in England and in America, and the various parts are also believed to have been sold separately.Beresford, Reverend James, TwelveLabours of an Editor, 285.The names and the times of editors might at anyperiod be exchanged for those quite otherwise and the samedifferences in constituencies would not alter the basic situation.

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The same republican Hands who have so often since the Chevalierde St.They are the worstfeature in the life of the United States, andmakemefeel kindly even to thePall Mall Gazette by comparison with them.Change of conditions affects illustration.All of these phases ofthe subject are inherent in the press and all must be reckonedwith.Tyler, The Literary History of the American Revolution, I, 19.

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Thus does the press, while abusing the Government for keepingback intelligence, fulfill its mission.The photograph is largely used to show distant places, individuals prominent for any and every reason, animals or objectsconspicuous in exhibitions, machinery or scientific apparatusand it is thusmost often used in the news columns or on the pagesdevoted to society affairs.In each country, theplace of the press varies and signature or anonymity varies withit.Hindu mythology was visible.Nineteenth Century and After, signedarticle favored by, 70, 72.Citedby the New York Times, August 5, 1917.He is specially concerned withthe drawing or sketch, the photograph, the caricature, and thecartoon.

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It is pleasant to record that the publicpress gave most generous and efficient support, and warmly and zealouslycame forward to serve the cause.Brooklyn Rapid Transit Co.Advantages of the illustration.New York Tribune,September 2, 1915.Whether the endowed press would in and of itself be moreauthoritative than the present proprietary press must thereforeremain a purely academic question.But an overelaborate forehandedness may give rise to a class of errors thatmay cause the future historian the greatest perplexity.

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That malignant ulcerof the mind, engendered by political disappointment, at length absorbed hisbetter qualities.Nicoll, JamesMacdonell, pp.France,is till heere.IQILimitations of special correspondence.Reform Bill in 1831.The bar sinister is found in the press that does not join a syndicate butprefers to appropriate the news collected by others.

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The Hague in 1914.If the analysis of the press thus far given is reasonably correct,itmust be evident that a large part of the newspaper is concernedwith giving information of very definite concrete nature for theauthoritativeness of which governments, known organizations,associations, and individuals are fully responsible, and in effectguarantee.Johnson gave George IIIin the library of Buckingham House, in 1767, concerning thelibrary resources of Oxford and Cambridge and general literarysubjects.Within an almosthas been changing, apparently in large part through the efforts ofthe press itself.While Frederick Greenwood was its editor,he had personally opposed the policies ofGladstone.Hingston and dramatic critics, 322.

Editors and owners ofnewspapers have long felt the exhaustivedrain made on their resources by war and the war correspondentand hence have not given him a sympathetic welcome.Editorial influenced by opposing tendencies.Pike, The Prostrate State.Manifold uses of the advertisement.As an instance of superior intrigue the story seems almosttoo Machiavellian to be true.The effects it wroughtwere subtle and insinuated, never clamorous.

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Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1912,pp.Bourne, Essays in Historical Criticism, pp.If the reporter is sometimes censured for fostering a sense ofdisproportion in news values, he, in his turn, may retort that heis himself the victim of this perverted sense.News, July 14, 1916.The Times, November 9, 24, December 12, 1874.Fraser for making the Index and reading the proof.

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All her work had been criticized by her husband, she wrote, and therefore she felt that what was good enoughto pass his scrutiny was good enough for the public.The newspaper and the government are connected primarilythrough the general questions of freedom of the press and censorship of the press.During the second period, the social status of the war correspondent changed; he was honored and recognized as a personof importance and influence.SATURDAYULSTER COUNTYPachel XINGSTON,GAZETTE.Electric and Painted Signs.His work has called forth the satire of writers for the press inother lines, and he has repeatedly been told that the public hasceased to be interested in his work.

Still another source of error comes from the habit of turning incopy written by one reporter and leaving the headlines to bewritten by a member of the office.Committee advertised the points at issue in thecontroversy and their reasons for supporting the side of theworkers.Relation of these questions to the historian.In a recent poison case one large daily had twelve reporters at workon it, while another paper in the same city gave it but half a column.Discredit attached to it as historical material.The net result of all of these interrelations of publishers,editors, authors, and critics is that the hands of the press oftenseem tied and that it vitiates the taste and lowers the standardsof the reading public.So keenly has the Associated Press felt this criticism that comesso trippingly from the tongue that in 1913 it welcomed theopportunity of bringing a suit for criminal libel against theeditor and the cartoonist of a monthly magazine which hadcharged it with the suppression of facts.

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Incompatibility of temperamentMacdonell and his chief.If opinionsmay be considered nearkinsmen of news, a possibleexplanation for the absence of news in the press may be found inthe blunt statement mademany years earlier by Edward Bulwerthat new opinions were not popular.New York Times, June 12, 1918.We think fit likewise to assure the Reader, That we shall be sofar from giving an Account of Books that are Trifling, or contraryTitles.Herald, and in many other journals in theWest and South and in Canada.

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Possible explanation of decline of editorial.But it was probably ten years later 105 that these early andsomewhat isolated attempts gathered a collective momentumand have resulted in the present widespread opprobrium incurredby misleading, dishonest, and objectionable advertising.The art of impersonation is precisely that imitation of life, thatcreation of the illusion of life, for which Aristotle contended.Until it is10 Caro Lloyd, Henry Demarest Lloyd, II, 145.Omniscience of the press.Dana, in The Art of Newspaper Making, pp.

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Anonymity as an element in personality.Among the most significant requests have been those in the announcements of deaths.The Boston Evening Transcript gives the special features that appearin itby separate days.Two news itemswere recently sent to the office of a local paper wherethey were changed beyond recognition.Forged documents have for centuries been a favorite device for attacking a weak or an unpopular minority, but such documents have had comparatively little relation to the newspaper press, except as this press has been a convenient means for establishing their spurious character.Neither the press nor the advertiser canin or of itself change these conditions.

Press exploits group hostility.Shepherd, Latin America, pp.Responsibility of the public.These all appeared in New York dailies.In its place there is a mass of amusementseekers, not without a nucleus of intelligent spectators, but ofthis nucleus only a small minority has very accurate ideas ofwhat constitutes good art.Golden age of war correspondence.On one memorable occasion theMorning Star reported a passage froma speech of Mr.

Daguerre est pour les formes matérielles.The same thing is done totraders on reaching a town; the crowd surrounding them andcompelling them to give a clear and full account, both of thedistrict they have come from and of the news they found currentin it.In large cities, all notices of marriages and of deaths must be accompanied by the name and address of the sender, although no regulation seems to have been devised that will prevent a person from sending a false notice of his own marriage.Interview of group activities.New York Times, October 29, 1918.Identification of authorship of press material.Life, 378, 382; vs.

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The Globe, July 19, 1905.The historian finds in all commercial advertising a perfectrecord of the conditions out of which it has grown.Distrib Disgtragenciesibutin, cl 16b, 135Distributin136.But just as unerringly the illustration shows the oppositeextreme.Its influence wasundoubtedly explained, at least in large part, by the absolutecertainty of its readers that its leaders expressed the personal convictions of its editors.Every time he covered a mobilization he realized that theaverage reporter on the ground was unable to comprehend the finer pointsof the manoeuvres because ofmore or less dense ignorance ofmilitary tactics.The responsibility entailed by this identity of interest between editor and community may again be illustrated by the conception of it held by this same editor.

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Clapp, Henry Austin, on dramaticcritic, 324; on the drama, 325.They arescarcely more dissimilar than are the variations in some of the speechesmade by Macaulay as reported in Hansard and as given in his collectedworks.Francis, Notes by the Way, pp.Many of the company remembered the debate; and somepassages were cited, with the approbation and applause of all present.Correspondence of Goldwin Smith, pp.

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It is based on The Newspaper Press Directory for 1881.All of these forms of illustration are coming tobe a more and more important part of the newspaper in thatthey make the text clearer, tell a story independently of thewritten text, give specific information on technical matters thatwould otherwise be incomprehensible to the laity, clarify obscuresituations, and elucidate complex subjects.Jesting in its turn is next ofkin to deliberate hoaxing, an excellent illustration of this being the mass of reports in connectionwith Dr.APPENDIX II: Bibliographical Notes.Any gentlemen volunteers who have a mind to make an agreablevoyage in this pleasant season of the year, may, by entering on board theabove Ship Ranger, meet with every civility they can possibly expect, andfor a further encouragement depend on the first opportunity being embracedto reward each one agreable to his merit.Other influences to secure honest advertisingDecline of fraudulent advertising.He seems to face animpasse.

The cauſe thathereDuke of Beyeren vvas broken up with his camp comes no certainty chcrcon, is this; That all paf.This maintains for its employees a restaurant, agymnasium, opportunities for recreation, and an emergencyhospital.One critic flings to the winds all previous standards of criticism,while the belief that standards do and must exist is the leadingthesis in the reasoned analysis of criticism given by another.It would, therefore, be importantfrom a patriotic point of view, for the daily papers also to occupy themselvesby means of caricatures with the principal events of the day.This became a not unimportant source for history, but remained without proper political as without literary significance.Sunday morning paper andmass meetings protesting against the comic Sunday section of thepress have had their effect.Literary criticism has apparently often left something to bedesired and this failure to reach an ideal has, as has been seen,been variously attributed in turn to perverted standards ofcriticism, to the critics themselves, to the editor, to publishers,to the business manager, and equally to the signed and to theunsigned review.

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The individualcommercialadvertiser is being absorbed in collective advertising,the local advertisement has become national, and the nationalhas developed into the international advertisement.Church activities aremade known not only through news items, but through paidadvertisements; clergymen not only do not avoid but seek theinterview; the bestowal of church printing becomes an importantfeature in the alliance between church and press; the camera is amedium of connection, and illustrations of church buildings, grouppictures of church associations, and press reproductions of illustrated posters all cement the union.Williams, History of EnglishJournalism to the Foundation of the Gazette, Appendix C, pp.It is sometimes better than thepublic, and sometimes worse.He is not a judge, ora mere fabricator of book notices.Brentano, Les Nouvellistes, 1905, and Figaro et ses devanciers, 1909.That a man, under these disadvantages, should be able to frame a systemof debate, to composespeeches of such excellence, both in matter of form, as scarcelyto be equalled by those of the most able and experienced statesmen, is, I say, matter of astonishment, and a proof of talentsthat qualified himon earth.

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Such material is authentic in the sense thatit is not forged, much of it is undoubtedly authoritative, as regards its content, but it is also true that the real authorship ofmuch of it will never be known.It is very gratifying to think that the influence of reviewers uponsociety is every day becoming more and more limited.Cable to the New YorkTimes, from Amsterdam, December 6, 1914.Inn, Johnson being also there, declared, that bythe style alone of the speeches in the debates, he could severallyassign them to the persons by whom they were delivered.Very few biographers of journalists have been able to make the persons of whom they are writing take on flesh and blood and become living men.

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An allembracing philanthropy exempts nothing from its protection.If a great brokerage firm fails, involving hundreds of clients infinancial loss, the public demands to know the cause and to knowwhat has become of the money; yet to print even one of the scoreof tales current on the street, before official investigations arecompleted, would be to prejudge a case and render the press liableto an action for libel.The failureto perceive this, and the virulence of tone natural to young menwho felt themselves under a political and social ban, made thegreat Review a receptacle of unjust judgments and indefensibletempers.Frederick Harrison also emphasized laterthe value of the principle of the signed article for which theNineteenth Century had always stood, since it had thus affordedopportunity for free public discussion of important questions.Daily press, July, 1921.

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His opportunity ofgathering intelligence depended in great measure upon communicationswhich might be made to him by officers of their own free will.Groovy Pagemusings, stories and thoughts of a young womanwho has a lot to say about a lotof things!Shea, Leaves from the Life of a Special Correspondent, I, 258.Recent more favorable attitude of historians.State supported newspapers have in turn been urged as a meansof avoiding the evils of a proprietary press.Srovin, one of the impriſoned duectors, to the nightfrom SerſebeGeorgew, with all in amanner are rene onco Barbe.

This is frequently the case where photographs of individuals are used.This committee would be changeable fromtime to time, and in its operation, backed by public opinion,would have far more power than could ever be exercised by aGovernment prosecution.The ban wassubsequently removed and mail and cable privileges restored onall lines controlled by Great Britain, its colonies, and its allies,but the removal of the ban applied only to the InternationalNews Service as an agency, and not to the Hearst newspapers.Interest in such papers psychological rather than historical.What The Times said on any important matter was listened to.

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The New York Edison Company gladly acknowledges its lastingindebtedness to the man whose name it bears.November 6, 9, 1916.It is necessary, no doubt, in the literary community that there shouldbe warders and executioners at the public command tobirch juvenileoffenders, and flog garrotters, and hang anarchists; but I have never feltany vocation for those disagreeable offices.Early discourtesy of the newspaper.Graphic pictures of the life of the camp and incidents of the battleare the stuff that patriotism thrives on.He often has virtually practiced espionage on his hosts.The actor or professional musician maywelcome the interview as a gratifying form of advertisement.

Bill in favor of Catholics, or the Wesleyan Methodists,or the Baptists.Able shorthand writers have complained thatthey could not follow me, and.This is done not only because reporters are themselves becoming more responsible, butbecause of the growing demand on the part of the reading publicthat all news must be authoritative.The writer disapproves of the censorship ofwar news and of acquiescence in it.It might be prudent to addof this critic in particular what Emerson has said of man ingeneral, that he is a golden impossibility.

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Nothingextenuate, nor set down aught in malice.As this service is rendered withoutcharge to not fewer than 16, 000 newspapers of all shades ofopinion and by its very nature does not lend itself readily to themanipulation of headlines, it may be assumed that its statementsare reliable.But the real difficulty is not in finding the ideal dramaticcritic, but in limiting and describing the functions of dramaticcriticism.All those to whom acknowledgment has directly or indirectly been made are absolved from all responsibility for errors of omission or commission; the ultimate liability for such errors must rest with the writer alone.London newspapers, whose statements overflowing with falsehood, could be traced to the Portuguese embassy in that capital.The prevailingweather and the climate of a particular section may be reconstructed from the advertisements of articles for sale adapted toevery degree of temperature, atmospheric conditions of wind,moisture, dust, and even a knowledge of the state of the highways and of a particular road may be gained from noting theadvertisements of articles offered for sale adapted to theseThe object of the advertisements of a great department storeis obviously to sell its merchandise, yet if the advertisements ofa single such establishment are examined day by day throughout a year in a single metropolitan daily it will be found thatthey have done far more than set before possible customers theadvantages of purchasing goods at this particular store.But even with absolute authoritativeness as to source of newsand with no restrictions on communicating the news received,errors may arise for which neither press nor correspondent canjustly be held responsible, as when they are due to the necessaryexpansion of skeleton messages.

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The society leader may be anxious to give an interview, butmayhave nothing to say.Similar conditions prevailed everywhere during this period.Members of the theatrical profession often find that indirectmeans of advertising themselves are more effective than are direct advertise74 A striking illustration of the relation between the editorial and theadvertisement is seen in the republication as an advertisement in thePhiladelphia Public Ledger, November 1, 1916, of an editorial that had appeared in the Chicago Daily News, October 25, 1916.It was received with favor, butbefore it could be acted on Hanover had become a Prussianprovince.This is indeed a veritable Homeric catalogue of the ships, butit is far from being all that must be said in regard to the reviewas trustworthy historicalmaterial.

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England, 66; in France,on newspaper style, 105.The reviewerhazards prophecy and is only interesting as a sign of the times.Corporate ownership supersedes personal ownershipEffect of change on editorial.To someof these questions it seems, indeed, impossible to give a satisfactory answer.Rhodes on value of press.Bussey, Sixty Years of Journalism, pp.

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The characteristics of the American journalist consist in an open and coarse appeal to the passionsof the populace; and he habitually abandons the principles ofpolitical science to assail the characters of individuals, to trackthem into private life, and to disclose all their weaknesses anderrors.Brentano, Les Nouvellistes, pp.Lucy,The Queen and Mr.It was written by a special correspondent and evidentlywas intended for the issue of a date two weeks later than the onein which it appeared.Florinstaine, for the Carle or Sulmsvvrites out of that the Emperour, nor the Duke of BeyerenWaldlaxſen of the im of this preſent, that the have no folke vvich in Prage.But the reporter has been instructed to secure an interview and hence he has recourse to his own invention and imagination and the faked interview is published.

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Announcement was made early inthe war in the advertising columns of the official English Gazettethat the names of certain persons of Teutonic descent but whowere British subjects by birth or naturalization had been legallyAnglicized.Richard Carlile brought outpapers bearing the various names of Republican, Deist, Moralist,Lion, Prompter, Gauntlet, Christian Warrior, Phoenix, Scourge,Church, and yet apparently the character of the paper neverchanged with change of name.And the editor and journalist of every rank long sought his recreations in Bohemia.Illustration used to influence political action.See also GreatBritain.

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But a few yearslater, in 1878, a Report from the Select Committee on Parliamentary Reporting presented the results of an elaborate inquiry concerning the comparative merits of official reports and reportsmade by private enterprise.Homeric explosion of laughter.Oliphant, Annals of a Publishing House, III, 393.These two numbersfor May 14 and May 28, 1898, were reprinted in New York in 1899.Signature, in its relation to the press, may be compared to abunch of grapes and anonymity to an orange.Perry, NewYork Times, March 5, 1916.The German illustrated papers show Belgian towns before the war.

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Theadvertisement is usedto solicit contributions to all charitable causes, and this in addition to the older and more familiar advertisements of balls,bazaars, concerts, and other forms of entertainment for thebenefit of specific causes.Theinformation which it conveyed to the public during the Peninsular War,although of the deepest interest to the British community, was offensiveto him, because the same information reached the enemy whom it wasof importance to keep in ignorance of the operations of the English campand the disposition of the troops.John of Jerusalem; for Belgian relief.As thecommencement exercises had occurred eight days before theabove notice, the members of the graduating class were scatteredfar and wide rather than attending the theater in New York City,while the leading actress, who was stated to be a graduate of thecollege, had never been even enrolled as a student there.He finds conversely a record of highminded business houses that have scorned to take advantage ofthis situation.They are often deprecated in times of peace and under conditions less easilyreached by censorship.Nicoll, James Macdonell, pp.

National Newspaper Window DisplayWeek, 361.The only censorship that herecognized was that of the newspaper he represented.Eliot, George, on reviewers, 311.The sketch is now practically limited to illustrating fashionsin clothing and furniture or otherobjects that can not be protectedby copyright or patent, and it is also often used where speciallyartistic effects are desired.The fear of the advertiser is a common explanation for the socalled supression of news, and the conventional illustration is theelevator accident in a departmentstore carrying large advertising.Not only are the editorials of a single editor and the editorials from a single news127 Winifred Stephens, Madame Adam.The result, if carriedout, would have been to make war correspondence an appanageof the War Office.

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Recovery killed him in our publick Prints, have nowreduced the young Dauphin of France to that desperate Condition ofWeakness, and Death itself, that it is hard to conjecture what Methodthey will take to bring him to Life again.Fromhis standpoint more or less discredit is attached to it.Pernicious effects of advertisements.Secrets of the sanctum.This generalacceptance of signature by the monthlies and thequarterlies has done much to dispel the somewhat pharisaicalspirit shown by those who favored either side towards those whoadopted the opposite custom.These facts have been stated to indicate that almost as old asthe newspaper itself is that part of it that makes special claimto wisdom.Good resource for promotinga small business on the Internet.

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In France,the alliance of the Church with royalty makes the republicanpress distinctly hostile to the Church.The illustration and the higher criticism.America which habitually declines toconciliate its readers, or to consider either the advertisers or thesubscription lists in deciding what art and what writing it shallpublish.Demachow a mile and a halfe fromneoce, which for that it is a Arong Fort, thereforethey incenderor in Dsulphidois.It was the commercial advertisement that first came to theforefront and that in the opinion of many has now come to control the policy of the periodical press.

Change in point of viewmay bring an equally interesting change in designation; TheForlorn Hope was the name of a weekly published in 1799 by theconvicts in the New York State Prison, while the correspondingpaper later was called The Star of Hope.This paper hasa circulation larger than that of any other evening paper in theUnited States.Salisbury, Lord, on special correspondent,183; journalists given titles by, 256.The newspaper is a microcosm of the national life.It isuseless to ask the newspaper publishers to improve the quality of printpaper; that quality is fixed by conditions beyond their control.

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Nothing happier could be devised toprotect newspaper readers than a law which would permitnewspaper correspondents and editors to bring into court menwho have deceived them by disseminating false news.Our newspapers have been too long disgraced bythis species of falsehood, filth and obscenity.Beckett wrote for the Oriental Budget a criticism of an amateurtheatrical performance given for a charitable purpose and in it criticizedseverely the part he had taken himself.Newspapers often state the various forms of printing andkindred enterprises carried on in connection with the publicationof a paper, including commercial printing, ruling, binding, occasional book publishing, and job printing of every description.Change in press interests.

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Different newspapers in different cities are sometimes controlled bymembers of the same family.But a great cosmopolitan journalist had already gone far beyond anything as yet suggested in America in advocating anational school of journalism in every country.Difficulties encountered by newsagencies.Portuguese nation and government.Party journalismAppearance of the TimesThe independent pressEffect of education on the pressFunction of newspaper changing.The internal conduct of the press thus in part explains the apparently waning power of the editorial.Book for Field Service,Third Edition, pp.

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Daily press, November, 1916.MacGahan ofthe second battle of Plevna, but the Russian censor at the telegraph officeany Russian mishap.Osgood thatthe notice be suppressed.Metternich, military press and, 25.Letters of Secretary Redfield, daily press, July 19, 20, 1915.

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Williams, a former resident of Syria.The practical journalists, who hadworked their own way upward by diligent application, knew theimpossibility of learning the lessons of Journalism within thewalls of a collegiate institution.The versatile cartoon may turn its coat andserve to illustrate equally well entirely different situations.But there is a difference between the mental and bodilysustenance thus received.Business OwnershipEverything you ever needed to know about being a womanin business!How far then does the editor control the policy of the press,how far is it controlled by the owner?Carteret,Les Moeurs et la Caricature en Allemagne en Autriche en Suisse; Les Meurset la Caricature en France.

In the presencetherefore of all of these increasing difficulties in describing actualwarfare, the war correspondent turns to new fields of interest,and a new form of war correspondence has been developed.Sincethe giders are daily caried by the CopoAherpes or gallies is gon into the blacke Stes, co kerpe ihe taines and Commaunders into the quarter to pay cbc SileciaoCoflocken backe, chat with their gallies uſed to go almont Soaldiers,From Vianna the luse 1621.British journalistat that timewas the free use of the telegraph, which in America had becomea thing of every day.The profit of the newspaper arises from the price paid foradvertisements, but advertisements are sent by preference tothe newspaper which has the greatest circulation; and thatpaper gets the widest circulation which is the most amusing,the most interesting, and the most instructive.Prior replied thatunless he saw the actual fighting he could not make genuine sketches.The author gives tables showing the comparativeamount of space given thirteen selected subjects in 1881 and in 1893 by theNew York Tribune, World, Times, and Sun.

The Spanish peninsula under the Duke of Wellington was nota fertile soil for the development of war correspondents and therepresentative of The Times after a few months returned toLondon.The newspaper itself thus presents on its business side a widerange of guarantees as to its credibility and reliability.La Presse de Paris.Gould, and the best politicalwriting by prose satirists in the weekly journals have producedimpressions closely akin to those that Aristophanes made it hisbusiness to create.As long asthe news sheet was simply a means of communication betweenthose absent in foreign wars and friends at home, the conduct andthe actionsof public officialswereofno concern to readers; as longas public officials regarded their conduct and actions as sacrosanct, they considered any report of their proceedings an unwarranted interference with their public work.That is another question and one to bemorecautiously answered.Reviews in the weeklies.

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The charge is often made that the press can not be trustedbecause of the contradictory elements in its composition.Interest in health shown.Effect of government connection on authoritativeness.Hemade preliminary sketches of Westminster Abbey and Dowlingthen asked permission of the Duke of Wellington to allow himto make asketch from the roof of Apsley House of the royal procession passing alongPicadilly.John Bright and The TimesEditorial dilemmas.Statement of a private news service bureau.

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Surf, Santa Cruz, 47; emblem of, 51.European scenery, and of European capitals with their art treasures.He, and the persons employed under him, gained admittance; they brought away the subject of discussion, the names of the speakers, the side they took, and theorder in which they rose, together with notes of the arguments advancedin the course of the debate.The question presented to the historian is therefore a twofold one.SCHOPENHAUER, ArthurSCHURZ, Carl1906.New York Evening Post, October 15, 1913.Association ofForeign Press Correspondents in the United States.

When he hadoccasion to mention me in his fourth volume the tribute had cooled down toa very commonplace reference.Rotterdam, The Hague andAmsterdam.With much that is admirable in the war correspondence of thetime, a larger proportion seems to be filled with the somewhatnaïve accounts of the social attentions showered on the correspondents and with accounts of their personal adventures.Perkins as chairmanof the New York City food supply committee and the agricultural societies of New York State.Changes in opinion of the editor.

The war grew out of the habit of the religious press of stating thedoctrines of its own denomination and attacking those of others.Authors do not personally advertise, but they are advertised by theirpublishers.The Minister of the Interior consulted with him andthe result was this suggestion.New York Sun, July 14, 1917.Yet if fame is sought by the journalist, it must never be forgotten that signature alone has never gained for articles theenduring fame that has been that of the author of the Letters ofJunius.Interborough Rapid Transit Co.

We could say with a clear conscience that we had not observed the least signs of this.It is not the object of the book to give a history, even a fragmentary one, either of the newspaper or of journalism.During the recent difficulties in Mexico an effort was made to meet theexpenses entailed by war correspondence through syndicating the lettersarranged for by a leading journal.Acta Diurna may have given the young authors the idea offabricating an early English newspaper.Times very much inconsequence of the prevailing notion that it speaks the opinionsofall England, are able to exercise great power in perverting theopinions of England whenever the public is sufficiently ignorantof facts to bemisled.John Stuart Mill to Motley.The article on The Catholic Press is one of the best discussions notedof the failures and the possible successes of the religious press.

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Sir Wemyss Reid on the press.Armenia, relief of, 338.Lords, House of, reporters in.National prejudices against the interview.Their coldness was,to me, astonishing so much so, as to be, under all the circumstances, almost irritating.

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One of these may be a large circleof acquaintances.The parts of the paper that are true can be traced to otherpapers that appeared much later, while the language used is notalways that of the Cromwellian period.Godkin on, 142;Rhodes, Cecil, 189.Distributionof news,y 16.The Golden Age of Authors, pp.TH1 E NEWSPAPER AND THE HISTORIANways in perplexity in his efforts to effect a compromise betweenhimself on the one side and all these discordant elements on theother side.

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Scotland made connectionwith the newsmongers of Paris.Irreconcilable differences often indeed existed, but they were not amicable and they existed between the different editors of different papers, not between the different parts of the same paper.These irreconcilable differences between writers who, for personal reasons, urge the signature of articles, and newspapers that,for the maintenance of authority, prefer anonymity affect materially the personality of the press.The contributions of vegetable and plant life are much less numerous.Bismarck, it was represented, wished to send both news and letters of observationand comment.

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This is done, not with intent to deceive, but throughthe application of the principle of division of labor and from thenecessity of economizing the time of those on whom unusual demands are made.Watts, Alaric Watts, I, chaps.Records of the press given by advertisements.Inone or another form they represent the daily demand and supplyof material for thought.But even here he must be on his guardsince in no country has the press had a continuous development.It was written by hand, nearlyall of it in red ink.

Ford on preservation of newspaper files.It was said by us that whereaswith the generation of the Reform Bill, everything had been new,everything had been true, and everything had been of thehighest importance, with us nothing was new, nothing was true,and nothing was of any importance.Bamford, Samuel, reporters and coroner,account by, 167.Existing political and social institutions are accepted,but without investigation as to their sufficiency in time of need.Perniciousas is the oral general statement of an individual, the printedgeneral statement of the press is infinitely more destructive ofthe truth.Regroupings in the religious press.

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In the Gulf of Pechilihe impartially recorded the messages passing between the belligerent shipson both sides.Cumberland, Richard, London Reviewand, 315.New York Times, October 12, 1916.The historian therefore in weighing the value for his purposesof the criticism found in the periodical press recognizes theinstability of all criticism due to changing standards and theunconscious conflict carried on at all times, as Trent has pointedout, 10 between the conservative teachers of criticismand theindividualistic methods of individual critics and reporters.Illustration limited by minds of readers.

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At that time the newspaper presswas playing a very minor rôle in politics.Edward VII, previous account of coronation of, published, 150.With all of its limitations and its advantages as historicalmaterial, the illustration probably more than any other singlefeature of the press gives the historian a conspectus of contemporary thought and action.Great advertisingman led Germany to war.Sheet marked four is gottenup separately for each state.Constitution, were supposed to be.The critics of the press are equally open tojust criticism for making on their part general statements concerning the press thatare unsupported by facts, for reversing ruleand exception and generalizing from the exception, for bringingsweeping charges against the press unsupported by evidence.

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The phraseology of the Monroe Doctrine has been ascribed to John QuincyAdams.Even more serious is the limitation on the usefulness of thesecond form of organization where the collection of news iscontrolled or influenced by the action of government, since atany time newsmay be delayed or entirely suppressed by government order.With this tendency every student of government or of law or of religion is familiar.Arrow, Tomahawk, Lance, Free Lance,Scimitar, Cannon Ball; Minute Man, Volunteer, Pilgrim, Crusader,Standard, Banner, Flag, Herald, Signal.If the cardinal sin of a reporter is held to be dullness rather thaninaccuracy, he conformsto what he believes to be the standardsof his profession.

It is most earnestly requested that instead of sendingflowers, those who wish to do so, send contributions in his memory to theAmerican Red Cross for war relief work.In this the beginning of the newspaper on a frontier settlement but duplicates the experience ofearly newspapers everywhere; the special eagerness has been fornews from abroad and there has been no demand for local news.The official censorformulates rules he can not understand and may blue pencilhis most apparently harmless statements.In 1921 it had a membership of nearly 1, 300 daily papers, the basis of membership was that of mutual association, and its day service and its night service commanded nearly 65, 000 miles of leased wire.Where the advertisers have been upholding a losing cause, asin the case of compulsory vaccination, and vivisection, theiradvertisements have been ignored by their opponents.

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New Zealand, minimum wage forjournalists in, 97.The statements made that in filling suchpositions preference should be given the impersonal bank aresupported by citations in advertisements fromcourt decisionsshowing that estates have often been squandered through themismanagement of the private executor.Puck and Life, Punch, and the FliegendeBlätter are all combinations of the cartoon and the caricature, butit would be impossible to mistake the illustrations of any of themand attribute them to another source.But no part of the press has been so frequently reprinted as has the editorial column.See alsoPulitzer School of Journalism.

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New York Times, September 6, 1914.In all of these philanthropic advertisements and appeals forcontributions to various good causes it is evident that the appealis largely made to the emotions.The historian perhaps also shares the current opinion in regardto the credibility of the newspaper.These, with the title andleading articles set up, were printed in Fleet Street and the localnews and local politics subsequently added in the country by thelocal printers.The Havas Agency was also asked to send itout verbatim to all of its correspondents in Italy, Spain, Portugal,and Switzerland, and it was also entrusted with sending it verbatim from Buenos Aires to Rio de Janeiro.

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How far is it possible to reconstruct from the press30 New York Tribune, October 24, 1917.The result has more than once been prolonged litigation, withdecisions unfavorable to the newspaper.Lowell toLeslie StephenStephen.Effect where Church is independent.The interview as historicalmaterialmust be questioned by thehistorian because it is often prepared by a person desiring to beinterviewed, given to his own secretary, prepared for publicationin his own office, and given to the press in complete form.Different tests must also be applied to the general newspaperthat reaches a wide and diversified constituency, and to theorgan of a special political party, religious faith, or industry.

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In 1905 the devil in Hades caricatures modernsociety; by 1909 the fabulous animals disappear and the humorous devilappears; in 1915 the devil is apparently first represented in the characterof a particular person.Maxwell, Life and Times of the Right Honourable William HenrySmith, 2 vols.One paper may give twelve columns to a scandaland another dismiss it in twelve lines.Robinson and conservative ownersWalt Whitman and owners.It often is impossible in such cases to separate cause and effect, demand and supply.The American correspondent who first scored an arrest was CaptainGranville Fortescue.

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Thebook is an excellent exposition of the subject.The daily cartoon encourages mediocreideas and even absence of ideas; it is often slovenly in workmanship, and it may become even more ephemeral than do otherparts of the newspaper.Founding of the Edinburgh Review.American Public Health Association,annualmeeting of, 95.It gives the life of the author,together with the story of the affair and a reprint of the articles that appearedin the Sun.Goethe, 288;his work on Cromwell, 415.

Nevertheless, thisguaranteed material forms a large part of every newspaper andit can be readily separated from other parts where the guarantee isless in evidence.Development of war correspondence.In this respect, therefore, they may be considered character sketches ratherthan caricatures in the usual sense.Lee, Instruction in Journalism in Institutions of Higher Education, pp.This has been noted as the second known instance of the use of the wordcaricature, even in its Italian form, the first being found in a work onChristian Morals written more than a hundred years earlier by Sir ThomasBrowne.What is the attitude of the historian toward the interview?

Perkins and agricultural societies.Cable from Paris to New York Times, September 25, 1914.Books written in regard to the press are surprisingly few and nearly all are of recent date.Secrecy is of the essence of successful warfare.It remained forCharles Wentworth Dilke, to whom again in quick successionthe editorship passed, to set himself so resolutely against thepractice 72 as to win the support of the press, although he did soThe recent significant development of news about books and of bookreviews in the daily press of both England and America has recently beennoted.

See also Nicknames.The German Empirebetween TwoWars, pp.It is again but a step from an open, legitimate use of theillustration to influence public opinion to the secret use of theillustration for propagandist purposes.One of the greatest values of the illustration to the historian isits comparative freedom from authority.It seemed to be, in homelyphrase, a case where the pot called the kettle black.

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Livingston relief expedition, 13.Soon after another woman equally prominent at home wasnot recognized by the crowd and therefore received no ovation except in the columns of the press.Recent birth announcements have included much information inregard to the ancestry of the child and the distinguished public servicesthese ancestors rendered.If the press does notalways tell all things to all men, it is not always because the newsis suppressed, butbecause the press, like all individuals, is justlycontrolled by the lawsmade for the protection of the innocent.Chisholm on press of, 487.The pain and deadly injury I have seeninflicted by a severe review is a form of cruelty for which I have no predilection.

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Or a hostile review may be heldover until a timemore politic for its release, say following severalenthusiastic reviews.Allen, on countrynewspaper, 486.Godfrey of Bouillon, 408.ChristianRegister, September 4, 1919, 98: 842.The idea spread rapidly.The first and greatest of War Correspondents.

Since the days of the Crimean war we have seen the business of warcorrespondence run its full course and sink perhaps into comparative insignificance.DECATUR, StephenDEFOE, Daniel1864 1916 author and correspondent1816 1903 statesman1779 1820 naval commander1661?Applicationsat newspaper offices for permission to consult their files havebeen granted, only to find that their files are incomplete.While these editorial variations have often given rise to pungentcriticism, very real difficulties are frequently presented to ansupport a Mr.And his final labor was to expose evil.Certain representatives of the press wished reports that wouldinterest their readers, while the Parliamentary Committee wasconcerned with the question ofwhat constitutes an officialrecord.

How much is spent for advertising?It having been discovered that applications are sometimes made by individuals to Authors and Publishers forBooks to be Reviewed in the Athenaeum, and this practice not being authorized or sanctioned by the Editor, it is particularly requested that all Worksintended for Review in these pages be sent directly to the Editor himself atthe Office of Publication.Black, coming in thebroadest of Scotch from the broadest of hearts I ever knew.It has been equally inevitablethat it quickly becomes difficult to distinguish such news agenciesfrom publicity bureaus pure and simple.The historian receives with caution the actual statements made, although hefinds in the inspired interview a valuable record of the conditionsthat make it possible.New York Evening Post, May 7, 1909.

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Times for the voice of England, to beirritated against England.The value of certain parts of the press to the future historianmay be tested by an examination of the accounts given bydifferent reporters of any contemporaneous signal event in acommunity.The forgery was clumsily executed, easily detected, andquickly exposed by two historical experts.Advertising by states and cities.The work at Lille, it is interestingto note, dealt with the press rather more than with the technicalside of journalism and included courses on the great journalists ofEngland, the press laws of France, and the history of the Frenchpress, including also the practical duties of a journalist.

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The nominal critic may be in reality a reporter andhence regard the play as a piece of news to be written up entertainingly.Under such a working agreement with the Government, blunders necessitating censorship would be reduced to a minimum.Winter, William, Towse on, 326.Closely affiliated with the collection and distribution of newswritten form while the advertisements were printed in regular type becauseit was supplied in plate form by the advertisers.Montagu, Basil, his edition of works ofBacon, 299.

The Central Hudson Gas and Electric Company used the advertisement to explain to its customers that an exceptionallysevere storm had so damaged its power station as to make itadvisable to avoid the risk of further damage by withdrawingits service for less than two hours on the previous day.Southern Slavs, he was familiar with the historyof the Balkan peoples, he had had a military education, and he had foundeda daily paper in Bosnia.Daily press, October, 1914.Life and Punch seemed especially prolific in creating symbols representing situations growing out of the war.The student of history finds, moreover, in these very questionings of the power of the advertiser an important record of changesthat have come in the business management of the press.Banfield on, 247;Blathwayt on, 247.Our illustrated papers were to publish pictures of the charge atSpichernberg, and also to deny the statement of the Constitutionnel that thePrussians had burnt down everything on their march, leaving nothing butruins behind them.

It is important to note that the attribution of the origin of newspapersin England to the corantos has not passed unchallenged.Crusaders, their letters a form of warcorrespondence, 195.The account as published in a local morningpaper was copied verbatim by a local evening paper.These charges have been that it is a monopoly, that it caters to a capitalistic press, that it suppressesthe news, and that its reports are biased or unfair.But it is rather to be said that the newspaper enlarges the social circle and that readers thousands ofmiles apart are by the newspaper brought into oneness of mindor ranged in opposing columns far more effectively than theywould be through the chance conversation or the monologuingof those in their immediate physical proximity.

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Value of illustration in reconstruction.Lycoce ofhis grace lodgedgraunt to a long timewith the Spaniards, thuc ro thehouſein the Biſhop ofSperes Territories.Philippines, newspapers of, 487.Reid, The Life, Letters and Friendships of Richard MoncktonMilnes, First Lord Houghton, II, 204.Without doubt the most widely known literary relic in this country.

The counterpart of the repudiated interview is the bogus,faked, or fictitious interview.Towne; there is likewiſeHeereis greartrouble, there are 400 Durch louldiersio 600 thouſand Florins in money, and ouſand Florinsthe Townc and theic thall 1300.Many of the specific questions involve the press in a verydirect way.John Leech, Later Pencillings from Punch.Fonblanque on, 55; Dickens on,55; De Tocqueville on, 55.

Reviews exactly like the ordinary public.Parliamentary reporters have themselves, however, pointedout the curious circumstance that the verbatim report may, atleast in spirit, be less accurate than other forms.War Office thought fit to every newspaper that cared topay its share toward the cost of the message.In the use of books and of documents ofevery kind it is comparatively easy to determine the authoritativeness of the statements made, but in the use of thenewspaperthis has seemed almost impossible.Advertising columns give one of the best records of the progress of the temperance movement, even before the adoptionof the Eighteenth Amendment.Plan of Sir Charles Wyke.

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Immediately preceding the EnglishReform Bill of 1832, no newspaper was published in Arbroath,its place was taken fairly well by the broadsides and postersthat came from the local press.Emperor, wherein he wrlies very frievedly uncoThe rewench ofthismoncih, 28.The real newspaper man never has any licenseto sleep if there is need to be awake.In the political campaign of 1872 the personal appearance and the personality of Horace Greeley lent themselves to caricature particularly well,and the caricaturists of the day so improved their opportunity that it waspopularly believed the caricatures were contributory causes to the death ofMr.Have the problems ofthe editor conspicuously changed since they were thus statedmore than a century ago?

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The great English reviews in particular have ina measure been controlled by their publishers rather than bytheir editors; they have sometimes been concerned not to giveoffence to the authorities of church and state and they havenoted the effect on sales of adverse criticism of books.It must be said that much of the criticism of the nineteenthcentury, especially that through the first half, and especiallythat of the quarterlies, was characterized by personal abuse andprivate hostility, and was lacking in nearly every characteristicthat is now associated with genuine literary criticism.The newspaper makes its own regulations for its own protection as well as for that of its readers.The prospectus of The Nation laid stress upon the advantages ofa weekly over a daily newspaper in respect of leisure for ascertainment ofthe facts and deliberation in comment.Judge in a cartoon, July,1884, figured Roosevelt as one of the Independent Army, but incorrectlysince he supported Blaine.In 1918 the wheel again turned when in Iowa the occupation was officially declared to be an unessential industry and its members therefore subject to the draft.

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This informationis made possible in part through the establishment in all greatnewspaper offices of special libraries under the care of trainedlibrarians.Honan landed in Genoa, February 25, 1848, and says that notan Italian newspaper had a correspondent in camp.Probably no Minister of State ever performed his duties more conscientiously than Acton his as essayist or reviewer; none in any department of affairs could give to the details of office a more anxious attention, a more exhaustive care.Collectively they give an insight into the evolution of methods that are changing the press on its literary side; individually and separately they vary little.Thus the illustratorcan give his work a definiteness and exactness of form deniedthe copy writer whose work too often is amputated to meetspace requirements, to the ultimate confusion of the historian.Butwhile these give the reports of scientific and technical discoveries,they give no news in the usual acceptance of the term and cannot in any sense be considered newspapers.

Robert de la Sizeranne notes that the word caricature is used in three different and sometimes contradictory senses: it may denote sketches ofexaggerated and grotesque figures, without legend and without moral intent;it may be used of scenes intentionally ironic, but without grotesque figures;it may represent figures neither grotesque nor ironic, but accompanied by thesymbols of glory, or depicting scenes of horror.Greenwood on press in, 430;school of journalismin, 400; Diceyon press in, 469.Its origin has been somewhat superciliously laid at the door ofAmerica, and it has at times aroused apprehension among thefriends of the press lest its baneful influence should affect allmembers of the guild.Full accounts of the forgery are given in John Morley, Life ofGladstone,II, Bk.What shall we do with our boys?Writers sometimes find a newsarticle sent in to the press distributed through different columns,one portion appearing as news, perhaps one paragraph as a shorteditorial, and a third coming out as a letter to the editor.If he is bynature a fighter, he does his best work under high tension; ifhe is an onlooker in life, his work shows detachment; if he is asatirist, the sting points his pencil.

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Have weundergone the bad will of Mr.New York Tribune, August 29, September 2,1915.The Duke of Wellington and war correspondents.Limitations through lack of proportion.Bamberger cites a somewhatparallel case in Germany, prior to 1890, where a court of lawdecided that a writer could be refused admission to a theatersubventioned by the public money, even though he had paid forhis ticket, because he had criticized the actors so sharply thathe had spoilt the pleasure of the public in the performance.

An important means used by the press itself to insure as far aspossible the authoritativeness of its statements is found in thebuilding up of special libraries in connection with every greatnewspaper, in the organization of systemsofnewspaper exchanges,in the formation of enormous collections of clippings and illustrative material, and in advance preparation of much biographicalmaterial to be available in any emergency.Friend, The, army paper, 25.Brentano gives several reproductions of the gazettes à la main, aswell as an exhaustive account of them.Prince von Bülow gave many interviews carefullywritten in advance; sometimes they were given out through theGerman Press Bureau, sometimes through representatives of afavored paper that then submitted them to the Press Bureau,sometimes they were personally handed to correspondents.Those that have been written are for the most part practically chronicles rather than interpretative histories.Absence of recognized standards.

Sizeranne notes how perverted would be the history of the warbased on the cartoons that represent England invading France and attackingBelgium; hordes of negroes roaming over Europe and threatening Germanywith fire and sword; America conspiring against Germany; the French,Russians, and English overthrowing their governments and perishing likeSamson in the ruins of the revolution they have wrought.Plato and Aristophanes trying to knocksome sense into the Athens of their day, Shakspear peopling that sameAthens with Elizabethan mechanics and Warwickshire hunts, Ibsen photographing the local doctors and vestrymen of a Norwegian parish, Carpacciopainting the life of St.Kelb where the picture printed was taken.Guarantee of probability, Chap.It states that it has complied with the federal law requiringregistration as second class mail matter.If I were a commanding general I wouldnot tolerate any of the tribe within my army lines.Debates were long made up of the variousnewspaper reports carefully collated and since no official report isauthorized by Parliament itself, if the newspapers are compelledto suppress a debate, it is lost forever.

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The Pressand Its Story, pp.Sherman on, 203; theater managersand, 320.Russian official press to be telegraphed back to London.To the future historianthe point is not without interest.Reliance on the advertisementas a means of settling political controversy can scarcely becarried further.

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But while the pernicious effects of advertising are often lamented, although not always proved, it must be rememberedthat there is another side to the question and that the beneficialeffects of advertising on the business administration of the pressmay have been even more important.The transformation also includes the variations that have been developedin the press of different nationalities.New York Telephone Co.Forestry and Irrigation, 48.The period ofdread of foreign and domestic enemies has passed away, and we verily believe it is due to the satiric pencil of Gillray.Christian feeling by not reading them.

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Wemake twice the number everyday of our lives as a matter of course, and claim no Sabbaticalexemptions.Hatin, Bibliographie historique et critique de la pressepériodique française; Curiosités révolutionnaires.Correspondents of the London Times.The Wolff Bureau has not published the text ofthe Servian response which was communicated to it.See also Independent journalism.

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Hethen urged the establishment in every capital of a paper to becalled The Judge and a federation of all national schools ofjournalism.The news wasat first cried aloud in France, but later themost important itemswere written out by hand and copies were circulated in Paris.But in spite of all the careful study given the paper, the object of the reprint is yet to be explained; a still further explanation is needed of the large number of successive and varying reprints.It often states that its circulation books, press room andmailing room are open at all times day or night to advertisers ortheir representatives; it gives its net circulation, after deductingthe number of copies used for exchange or by the employees, andthe number of unsold or returned papers; and it frequently makesaffidavit before a notary public of all facts affecting its circulation.Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America, I, 200.

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The editorial has thus seemed to be drawn in opposite directions; one set of influences has tended to minimize its importancewhile another has given it a standing and a power it has neverhad before.Smith, Henry Louis, letter from, cited,Shipping news, guaranteed by federalgovernment, 77.Effect of inventions on growth of the press.Mechanical devices enable him to accompany his letters with charts,maps, plans, outlines, and graphic sketches.Although both papers published the letter,they accompanied it with a statement that the lecturer had saidprecisely the opposite of what was attributed to him.This folio of four pages, happy workWhich not even critics criticise; that holdsInquisitive attention, while I read,Fast bound in chains of silence, which the fair,Though eloquent themselves, yet fear to break;What is it but a map of busy life,Its fluctuations, and its vast concerns?Conclusions drawn in regardto the relationship between the press and religious activitiesmust differ when in one country this relationship is cordial andintimate, in another it is one of more or less detachment, and whenin another the relationship is conditioned by politicalaffiliations.

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New York TimesMagazine, September 5, 1915.The personality of a periodical is indicated not only by its external appearance but also by its beliefs and opinions.Couil, honorable atiend him.Whig dogs should not have the best of it.All can raise the flowers now, for all havegot the seed.

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See Pyne and Harrison Co.It is true that some of these guarantees have been modifiedduring times of war or socialupheaval, but they must be understood as the guarantees that may be relied upon under normalconditions.As a businessenterprise it is called on to meet every question that confrontsevery other occupation while recording the situation in the business world as regards all other industries.Newark, New Jersey,and the vicinity to Baltimore in reply to an advertisement that sevenhundred and twenty men were wanted there.It is, however, very obvious that a great change has of late yearstaken place in the press, and that if it does not yet acknowledge itserrors on questions of public policy, it is at least ready to apologize for incorrect statements made with reference to individuals.American Transatlantic Line, 355.

Russia, newspaper correspondents exRoman Catholic press.The press is indeed handicapped by conditions that the historian can not disregard.Francis, Notes by the Way, pp.Steed, The Hapsburg Monarchy, pp.The Century Magazine announced in its issue ofNovember, 1908, the early appearance of the interview in itspages, but it did not appear, having apparently been suppressedat the insistent request of the German Foreign Office.

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New York Tribune, April 28, 1919.Thus in all these wayswe will transmit this city not only not less but greater, better andmore beautiful than it was transmitted to us.Like them also it gives evidence of the changes in purposeand in method that are already on the way.Heere is certaine nerves com, charche Cra:ment, chere quarter is laid by Callel, the Soul.Post office, press and, 76, 77.Since it has notas yet been realized, it is impossible to speak of it except in termsof the subjunctive.You makemuch of that public opinionfor the Times, and believe me I shall ever remember you if youever say a good word for Greece and the King.

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Oliphant, The Annals of a Publishing House; William Blackwood andHis Sons, 3 vols.But his own list of qualifications, from the standpoint of thespecial correspondent himself, may vary materially from those ofthe editor; if the editor emphasizes the needs of the newspaper,the correspondent does not forget the correspondent propriapersona.Press limited by own desire for news.The steel strike in 1919 dropped out of the press, not necessarilybecause news concerning it had been suppressed, but because,after it had been running some weeks and the situation wasapparently unchanged, information concerning it ceased to benews.Its completeness in itself.

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Although the national judgment is much influenced by the reportsof the press representatives from the seat of war, the need of systematicallytraining such guides to public opinion in the performance oftheir responsibleduties has not yet been accepted in democratic communities.But not only must the newspaper interpret the events that itconsciously reports, it must in its turn be interpreted by thosewho use it in a reconstruction of the past.It is also obvious that while the greater part, ifnot all, of the newspaper that has behind it an absolute guaranteecan not in any sense be considered news, yet its inherent value inreconstructing the past may be far greater than the publishednews of the hour.This protestwas unavailing and he finally severed his connection with the magazine onthis ground.In all of these changes in the purpose of the newspaper it hasthus seemed to be repeating the experience of the museum ofnatural science.Go on and stir things up.

Printing or Venting inmanuscript, the diurnal Occurrences of Parliament.Portuguese armies, andthe most exact account of the reinforcements sent fromEngland.Campaigns of a WarCorrespondent, pp.Islam, clad in a stiff shirt and wearing a starchedcollar; the idea of this seemed ludicrous, as both the image and the dresswere anathema to true believers.Edison is annually recognized by advertisement, February 11.New York Times, Mr.This complaint also will not down.

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These are just the kind of problems whichone has strength to enter on in the hungry hour before dinner, and wemaybe glad to have them handled so soberly and discreetly.This was not the greeting which our established papers give to new adventurers.Education on its side establishes schools for the training ofjournalists and introduces courses in journalism into educationalcurricula.He considers it an honorablefunction of the war correspondent to stimulate the patriotismof those at home by narrating the deeds of valor of those at thefront, buthe findshis efforts coldly received by the government.Advertisements to influence personal action merge imperceptibly into those intended to actuate collective action.Porritt, The Englishman at Home, pp.Parliament should have somerecord of its transactions for historicalpurposes, or for the purposes of the Members themselves.

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Effect of this in France.The American News Company unfortunately does not print any description of its work nor has apparently any descriptive article relating toit found its way into any American periodical.Critical andSocial Essays, pp.The distorted interview was indignantlydenied, but truth seldom overtakes error.New York City, 339.It purported to represent an attackin the streets ofMoscow by Soviet leaders who turned machine guns on amob ofmen, women, and children demanding food.

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He who reads nothing will stilllearn the great facts, and the details are all false.The Nation, January 28, 1869, 8: 66.The social evolution of the editor has probably had no small effect on the influence of the editorial.Even the domestic advertisement is not exempt from thedanger of libel suits incurred through its statements and frommisstatements and misunderstandings that call for explanationand apology.The complaint wasmade to the editor of the New York Tribunethat certain advertisers threatened to cancel a large contract unless anadverse criticism was repudiated.

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Des Granges has given warm appreciation of theseservices rendered the history of romanticism.Frontispiece, reproduced fromthe Independent Monitor, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, September 1, 1868.Banks,Autobiography of a Newspaper Girl, chap.Its values as a form of art have not changed since the days whentheatres like those of Epidaurus were made large enough tocontain the population of the entire city, and every man was hisown critic.Richard Sault publishedthe Athenian Mercury from March, 1691 until June, 1697.

Defoe and the editorial.Hawaii, newspapers of, 487.Mistranslation a source of error.Parts of the press less helpful in reconstruction.Special correspondence of the New York Evening Post, May 13, 1914.

What interests him is the amount or quality of its circulation.Editors and editorials differ in different countries, they differ at different times in the same country, and an editor does not always agree with himself.Jackson who finds muchembroidery but few ideas in the work of contemporary artists.In this way he gathered materials for weeklyepistles destined to enlighten some country town or some benchof rustic magistrates.Essential, has fully consideredthe various forms of competitive commercial advertising.Royalty as special correspondent.

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The public demands the news, the press is organized to meet the demand, and such papers as fail to do this, fallby the wayside.So common an object as a newspaper is seldom the subject ofserious reflection.McMaster, John Bach, History of thePeople of the United States, xxxviii,xl, xliii.Cleveland, Ohio, named in honor ofMoses Cleaveland, 109.Inasmuch as one of the papers, in addition to the error oftheheadline, reversed the figures of the vote on the question, botha careful reading of the decision and a knowledge of local conditions were required in order to determine the actual situation inBeekman.The illustration apparently carries in itself fewer guaranteesof unimpeachable accuracy than do many other parts of thepress, the very vividness of impression that it creates may beits own undoing, and the tests of usefulness that must be appliedto it are specially numerous and important in comparison withthose demanded by other parts of the periodical.

Walpole, Sir Robert, Craftsman opposedto, 33; pamphlets inspired by, 263.An important business house in New York City whose drivers had struck,not for higher wages but for a closed shop, announced throughadvertisements its determination not to accede to the demandand stated to the public its general business policy.The advertiser, rather than the subscriber, is now the newspaper bogie.The advertisement is extensively used to give information to the public that may or may not redound to thebenefit of the advertiser.Advantage of English newspapers.National campaign in 1920.

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And no one knows,possibly not even these critics themselves.Grote had been a banker, Hodgkin a merchant, and Stubbs a clergyman, and a history written by an instructor in civil engineering was conceivable.KINGSTON, Uhe CoSAPAUEL FREERSOS.Series of editorialsComparative freedom from authority.The proof reader must also share the errors of the reporter.CHAPTER XVITHE AUTHORITATIVENESS OF THE PRESSIs the periodical press authoritative.Not only does the newspaper have its own business name, butit does not escape the tendency of acquiring from external sourcesthe nickname that to others describes its personality.

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The average net daily sale of the London Daily Mail for the first halfooff April,1921, was 1, 365, 256.Lewes on, 327; Hamilton on,Daily Journal, Madison, Wis.At the same time I do not always guarantee it, being convinced that among five hundred despatches written in hastefrom all countries it is impossible to escape passing somethingfrom one correspondent to another which will require correctionfrom Father Time.News being among the earliestto do so.Minimum wage, for journalists, 97.Editorials, 11, 12, Chap.The personality of a humorous paper like Punch is so strong that noneof its numerous imitations has had more than a brief existence.

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It professed to give an account of the inhabitants of the moon, based on discoveries reported as made bySir John Herschel at the Cape of Good Hope.But the Army has stillsome little way to travel in the directions, first, of understanding thatnothing can ever be so powerful as the truth and, second, of trusting furtherto the discretion of Correspondents who know the use of the weapons whichthey wield much better than the Army can ever teach them.McWilliams, Report of Convention of AmericanBankers at Kansas City, Missouri, 1916.Info about loans, mentorship programs and more!House, since the surest recipe for killing a liewas to multiply the witnesses to the truth.Almost unsurmountable obstructions have blocked his way andthat in the beginning he made any headway against them issurprising.

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The New York Evening Post publishes, and frequently revises, a pamphletgiving the list of its obituaries in readiness, character sketches, and list ofsubject envelopes.Von Bülow and the interview.Discrepancy between observations of officials and of laymen.Kladderadatsch, 379, 382; Bismarck and,409.Different types of war correspondents.

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The wholeDemocratic accomplishmentmust be wiped off the books.Thus The Times and all other papers were distanced by the Tribune.In The Times ofDelane the leading article was the thing which no politician couldafford to miss, for it might contain early news nowhere else obtainable.Napier into frequentdifficulties on the same score.Hamilton, Clayton, on dramatic critGreenwood, Frederick, on foreign correspondence in England, 187; resignation of, 267; on English press, 430.Monthlies and quarterlies accept signature wholly.It does not fully record itsrelation to governmental authority that by censorship, regulation, and control of news service has from time to time laid aheavy hand on the periodical press; it can not always record theexistence of a public opinion that has made it what it is, or theabsence of a public opinion that has prevented it from becomingwhat it might otherwise have been.

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The larger papers have their columns orpages for games, sporting news, and athletic contests, and theseare in charge of an editor usually named.To supply this defect, Kossuth resolvedto devote the time, which would otherwise have been wasted inidle listening, to carefully reporting everything that took place,and circulated it all over the country on a small printed sheet.The views of the paper itself should be found inthe editorial columns.This collection has been made possible through the bequests of the late Anna Justice, Vassar College, Class of 1901, and of the late Henry Justice of Philadelphia.Protests against these tendencies have in turn foundexpression through the press.Other reasons seem also at times to have deterred editors fromfavoring war correspondents, but it is not always possible forthe historian to go behind the face of the returns and to separatefact from motive.Saintsbury, History of Criticism, III, 420.

Carlylewhose Oliver Cromwell appeared in that year.The proprietor of the newspaper who had askedHolyoake to come from London went over the toast list with him.Scott and the Pacific Northwest.The photograph lends itself specially well to this form ofdeception.The reporting of news long suffered because thework was ill organized.Parris in regard of cervice marſhallmatters, the ſpirituin lortufe chemſelues therein; yefterdayolen ollembled ingecher, and as the Bishop of Bollonis defi.New York Evening Post, October 8, 1909.

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Journalists havealmost unanimously come to favor signature but their reasonshave apparently been very diverse.Some of the pitfalls in the path of the reviewer have long beenrecognized and efforts have been made to avoid them.Gaskell and, 279; MSS.Since their circulation is greatest among the monied classes, the returns toadvertisers, they feel, will be correspondingly large.The cartoons of Puck from 1876 to 1893 show an understandingand appreciation of the character of Bismarck and EmperorWilliam II that subsequent events have proved correct; 89 theydid much to interpret to his own generation, as well as to thefollowing, the aims and achievements of President Cleveland.The establishment of schools of journalism would seem an ineffective way ofcoping with office mismanagement.William Archer saysthat producing a play and waiting for the opinion of the criticsis comparable to the sensation of a felon waiting for the verdict.

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It is true that occasionally such interest is a factitious oneand is feigned only with the ulterior object of increasing its circulation among those concerned with these questions, but even thisindicates in itself another side of the personality of the newspaper.Heaven keep us from a lower stage!The newspaper is a large factor in the industrialworld.Blowitz obtained an interview with Count Münster concerning the retirement of Bismarck,but a month after it had appeared in the London Times it was repudiated by the Count.In the middle of the lastcentury, Hayward noted that pain or the fear of pain was themost active stimulant to advertising and that this resulted in thesupremacy of patent medicine advertising.Russell to The Times give abundantproof.

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New York Evening Post, December 8, 1908.These are but suggestions of the large number of responsibleorganizations and individuals that in effect guarantee the authoritativeness of much that is published by the press.Even at the PeaceConference, the foreign press correspondents were effectivelyprevented from acquiring special knowledge essential to theirwork and from receiving information from America that wouldhave shown the attitude of the country towards some of thequestions under consideration.If collective defeat comes to the army, the individualmembers do not wish to have their personal misfortunes particularized, their forced retreat and consequent sufferings made aspectacle for the entertainment of others, their internment orimprisonment with the humiliation and disgrace they conceiveis attached to it recognized on the screen by distant friends.It publishes advertisements of colleges and private schools, it frequently maintains abureau to help parents in the selection of schools for their children,it reports changes of personnel in the teachers of the privateschools, and it announces the comings and the goings of theteachers in the public schools.

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The newspaper maintains an intimate relationship with theChurch as an organization and with the leading persons connectedwith it.Lord Colchester, Diary, II, 240.It was apparently regular as regards its source and it was published by theJournal of Commerce and the World, other New York papersalmost by accident escaping the trap set for them.At times information may reach the press that the interviewthat has been obtained is objectionable, unreasonable, or untrue,and hence it may be suppressed.House of Commons too late in the sessionfor definite action to be taken on it.York Evening Post, December 8, 1908.

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Army Corps to the Allies.First in Circulation, First inAdvertising.This is the outer room, where my clerks sit,And keep their sides, the register in themidst;The examiner, he sits private there, within;And here I have my several rolls and filesOf news by the alphabet, and all put upUnder their heads.As a result of the protest the BritishWar Office partly rescinded the order, 30 later only neutral correspondents were admitted, 31 and still later the rules were relaxedto permit three groups of six correspondents each by turns tovisit the British front and each group to remain about six dayseach.What most extraordinarymen are these reporters of newspapers in general, I mean Englishnewspapers!Meeting him this evening, Iasked him whether it was true.

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Lord Palmerston, in opposing the Suez Canal,had affirmed that the sand of the desert would fill up the Canalas fast as it was made, and this was believed.The news in spite of thenewspapers.The critic is limited bythe policy of the editor towards the theater, by his assumedtacit obligation to theater managers, by his personal relationswith actors, and frequently by his own efforts in playwriting andin actingThere has long been a feeling on the part of theater managersthat the receipt of complimentary tickets by a newspaper carrieswith it an implied obligation to give a favorable notice of theplay seen.Constantinople correspondence of the most influential journals inEngland and on the Continent.It was the sameman.The official reporter of legislative and legal proceedings hasbeen a comparatively recent development of the press.

Avaunt this vile abuse of pictured page!The New LaokoonTheory of Bliss Perry.How far the editor and the newspaper can be considered synonymous terms is one of the troublesome problems of the historian, but it is clear that they must be so considered during the period of personal journalism.The early commercial advertisements were largely haphazardin their form and hence in their appeal.Thethirsting for information in regard to love and marriage, historyand philosophy, religion and politics, nature and science, and allother subjects on earth, in the heavens above, and in the watersunder the earth.Transient asthey are in themselves, they will remain a psychological recordof the havoc wrought by war.The news is first made up here by thesyndicate for the transmission of false information, which hassuch enormous resources at its disposal, and is then cabled toLondon to produce alarm on the Stock Exchange or unrest in theCabinet.

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Carlyle, The Life of John Sterling, pp.Inasmuch as similar examinations are demanded byother professions this seems not unreasonable.It is a truism that the stream can not risehigher than the source.But origins are everywhere somewhat similar.When his representative was told that only newswould be desired, he said that no doubt this could be arranged,and left, but nothing further was heard from him.The editorials inAmerican newspapers while perhaps less significant must still bereckoned with by the historian.But the question of how far the newspaper can be of serviceto the historian is but half answered even if it can be determinedwhat parts of the press are presumably reliable and what arethe regions where danger lurks.

Ittook a lot of hard work and many hours to put all of this together.New York Tribune, February 11, 1873.These differences of opinion between critics and actors did not131 The Modern Adam, or How Things are Done, pp.The biographical material dealing with the press has thus, considered as a whole, something of an external character in its relation to the press, and it gives comparatively little help in discovering the secret of the success or the failure of those who have been a very vital part of the press.Dickens as a reporter.The number of recruits secured through advertising was apparentlyoverestimated by Sir Hedley.

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Where the Church is intimately connected with the State, asomewhat different relationship between the press and theChurch is found, and therefore somewhat different conditions arepresented to the historian.Parliament that John Nichols sayswithin his remembrance were regularly circulated in the coffeehouses before the daily papers were tacitly permitted to reportthe debates.Thenewspaper as a business enterprise offers certain guaranteesthrough the information it publishes concerning itself.The Journals of all the Parliaments during the reign of Queen Elizabethboth of the House of Lords and House of Commons, pp.Boswell or a Landor has been present.Palladium, Phoenix, Psyche, Sphynx.

Its usefulness will be still furtherincreased when it extends its boundaries and incorporates amongits activities more serious investigation into the history of thepress, an application of methods of work used in other fields,considers more completely the press as the resultant product ofits journalistic activities, and develops from its present immaturecuriosity the spirit of intellectual research.When all has been said on the side of the identification ofjournalism with literature, it still seems clear that varioussubtile differences distinguish the two.Owing to the great demand for advertising space in The New YorkTimes it has frequently been necessary to omit many advertisements.Brodrick and the Times.Sancke all about the Countrie, and while the Souldsens charners comehomerothe Graue againe,are coking up Concinewes; they imboldco theroſclucsto gocTomorrow the Scaces Proclamation couching preparadon to bemade for the Armado, co goc co the WcA lodes atjo troupes cogerher.

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Criticism and complimentary tickets.The religious press, on the other hand, represents not simplytwo but scores of warring factions and of divisions within sectseach actuated by a missionary zeal for converting every one toits own particular tenets.Whichis Memory Woodfall and which is Mr.Hanover,453; effect of, in reconstructing past,491.The great difficulty of getting trustworthy news fromthe continent during the latter part of the Napoleonic wars ledJohn Walter, Jr.Responsibility of such identification.Reports on the Subject of Parliamentary Reporting in Foreign Countriesand in the Colonies.

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Gould, Political Caricatures, 1903, 1904, 1905, 1906.Interview distrusted because of object.The selection of the one hundred bestbooks of all time, or of the past year, or of the current week, orfor a shelf of any length must always vary infinitely, even theBible and Shakespeare would presumably not be listed by Chineseor Brahmin scholars, and in some quarters doubts in regard toShakespeare have arisen since the reminder that it was Germanscholarship that discovered his rank.The Newspaper and Authority.Congress,rather than the press, has arranged for the reports of its proceedings.

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Guarantees afforded by business interests.The Chamber of Commerce of Kansas City in the summer of 1919advertised extensively in Eastern papers the advantages of Kansas Citythe standpoint of business, transportation facilities, climate, andhealth.Fog, Applebee and Mist, have been set forth by all of his biographers.Poughkeepsie, New York,May 10, 1918.The Commons Debates for 1629.Grand DukeMichael at a luncheon at Monte Carlo, declares that neverwas the condition of the Russian Empire as satisfactory asit is at present.General statements are always dangerous and involve exceptions asnumerous as the instances on which they are based.

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Hamburger Correspondenten all the public documents at his disposal, and was to have the benefit also of a mass of information of which the restraints of the German pressdid not permit him to avail himself.At the end of the advertisement, it is evident that all refersto the German newspapers published in New York City.If it is an organ,anonymity must be the rule; if it is a forum, signature is essential.The advertiser of furs takes readers to the far North anddescribes the various steps by which furs, through trapping,trading, and shipping, are brought from remote places and peoplesto great metropolitan centers.Even in 1905 British physicians were reported to be discussingwith much bitterness the propriety of granting interviewsto newspapers on medical topics because such a policy seemed to them tosavor of advertising.Yet this great treasury of information rests upon a foundation almostas light as air, for it is recorded on a paper which rapidly disintegrateswhether used or not, whether bound or in sheets, whether sealed or exposed.The guarantee is, it is true, a negativeone.

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Montesquieu can not help adding that during fiftyyears the influence of the nouvelliste had really been no greaterthan a silence equally long would have been.Blathwayt says that he introduced the American interview intoBritish journalism about 1890.New York Evening Post, January 29, 1917.To reinforce the newspaper with crêpeline would be too costly and unsatisfactory.It has been inevitable in our own day that with the enlargingsphere of influence of the press corresponding distrust shouldarise.The courts have sometimes been called on to decide questions involvingadverse criticism.

Daily and weekly press accept signature in part.But he took no steps to procure the punishment of the libellers.De Blowitz and Count Münster.An account is given in the New York Tribune, December 17, 1917, andin following issues, to February 10, 1918.Theconnection between advertising and manners may at first thoughtseem remote, yet that good manners may be inculcated throughthe advertisement is believed by at least one great businesscorporation, 58 and that bad manners may nullify the advantagesof advertising was made clear at a recent convention of Americanbankers.He once wrote ten pages in a single day, and that not along one, beginning perhaps at noon, and ending early in theevening.America are said to be published in the larger cities.

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Acceptance of information received.Between theupper and the nether millstone the review is crushed.September, 1888, and reportedFebruary, 1890, that they found the letter to be a forgery.Effect of an established Church.Themodern newspaper first came intoexistence when progress in the technique of printing made possible the multiplication of copies of these letters, and improvement in means of communication facilitated their distribution.

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Gazelle, Sydney, Bonwick on, 487.Rights of Corporations and Reporters.Philippe de Comines, 1492.Wyke, Sir Charles, his plan to regulatepress, 453.It was out of this Central Press, organized for supplying on anextensive scale partly printed papers to the provincial press, thatlater was developed the great Press Association of England, nowcorresponding to the Associated Press of America.

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But the charge that the press intentionally suppresses thenewscan not be so lightly dismissed.Is there anything whereof it may be said, See, this is new?The illustration reflects the prevailing interest in all questionsof sanitation and of public health.Itsancestors have been numerous, and its own forms are protean.It sets aside finely appointed rooms for publicmeetings, lectures, plays, and concerts for charitable purposes.The political press has shown the same tendencies towards theestablishment of local organs representing the political views ofindividual owners, new political alignments involving presscombinations, and still again the individual owner looking uponthe press as a business enterprise with the resulting chain ofnewspapers and periodicals of every description, together withthe control of pulp mills and other activities concerned in theirpublication.It is something more than a fib.

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If it is an epitomeof the press as a whole, it must follow that thesame general tests for authoritativeness must be applied to itas are applied to the various parts of the press, although theymust vary somewhat since they must be applied both to themeans by which the illustration is made and also to the subjectof the illustration.The consequence is that the newspapers oflargest circulation, published in the great centres of population where mostvotes are cast, are less and less organs of opinion, especially in America.Charges made against advertisements.Brien, William, on the reporter, 153.And of method of writing history.Dunton publishedin four volumes a selection from these Mercuries and issued it as the AthenianOracle.This statement, that has in effect frequentlybeen made by others, must create misgivings in the mind of thehistorian.

It has taken us sometime toorganize this system.An effort has been made to indicate the general lines alongwhich these tests must be applied, and to suggest the specialdangers connected with some subjects, and the comparativeimmunity from danger of others.Onthis fide the Earle of Colaido hain goren the Budia.They indicate in what lines of advertising they specialize and showby figures, charts, and every form of graphic illustration thatthey lead all competitors in carrying the largest number of advertisements of art, automobiles, department stores, dry goods,finance, bonds and securities, foodstuffs, hotels and restaurants,legal matters, lost and found articles, the publishing business,real estate, pleasure and health resorts, recreation and amuse?These twopapers did everything possible to rectify the wrong done, 20 butDelane, and Escott contrasts the carelessness of The Times in the matterwith the infinite pains taken by Delane in ascertaining the facts behind aletter sent him by his Paris correspondent in 1875.But it must be recognized that it is in the selection of materialthat one of the great limitations on the authoritativeness of thepress is found.But on account of thecrowd, he could not see the Bishopswhen on their knees, and as they passedinto the Chamber afterwards they had their mitres on.

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IWD is not country, group or organization specific.His task is to bring to his criticism a sympathetic andadequate knowledge of the drama, an understanding of thetechnical machinery of the stage, an appreciation of the effectof the drama upon the audience, and a comprehension of theproblems of the playwright and of the actors.The story of the secession movement of November andDecember, 1860, can not be told with correctness and lifewithout frequent references to the Charleston Mercury and theCharleston Courier.Press handicapped by tradition and formulas.At least one periodical having a large circulation is reputed to havenarrowly averted a financial disaster that had been imminent because ofextravagant outlay for illustration.Whatever may bethought of the new method from other points of view, it must beadmitted that the old method gave peculiar power to the leadingarticle.Thomas, a nephew of Isaiahhis father who lived inThomas, who writes of the effort ofLancaster, Massachusetts, to get subscribers tonewspapers at the close of the Revolutionary War.

Continuity ofnarration is found in the newspaper through the letters of correspondents permanently attached to national capitals or assignedto report at length on important, prolonged questions, but theseletters can not always be considered news.An examination of thepress itself seems to lead to the same conclusion and it showswhere the pitfalls lie.Groups concerned in criticism.But inwhatever form the element of humor enters into the newspaper,whether it relies on misspelled English, or on dialect, or on itsown innate qualities; whether it creates a Mr.History of English Journalism, chap.

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What does The Times say?Newspaper Enterprise Association, 45.And of all the services whichthanthe press has rendered to free institutions, none has been greater thanits bold defiance of parliamentary privilege, while laboring for theinterests of the people.Nearly all of them are quickly forgotten,and the number is extremely small of those that will discomfortthe future historian.Then, as to the Management of the Work in general, it is ourdesign to keep a Medium betwixt tedious Extracts, and superficial Catalogues, made up only of Title and Preface; the formerbeing tiresom to the Reader, as well as injurious to the Sale ofthe Books; and the latter being a meer Imposition on the Publick.

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You think that I ought to haverejected an article on the Italian Economists by Spring Rice, onthe ground that the whole province of Political Economy oughtto be kept sacred for yourself.Earle of Dampier to be buried lately at!But those issued after 1870 have steadily degeneratedin quality of paper and have long presented insuperable difficultiesin the way of preservation.As the editorial has widened its scope from the early, almostexclusive consideration of political subjects, it has in so doingacquired an independence in treating all subjects.It is sometimes charged that the Associated Press suppressesthe news.The editorial was a guarantee of the personal views of the editor, but it was not a guarantee that these same opinions were widely prevalent.

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Vassar College Library from the libraries of Columbia, Cornell, Harvard, and Yale Universities, the New Bedford Free Public Library, the New York State Library, and the Library of Congress.Encyclopaedia Britannica,XIX, 579.The ferment this caused is now inconceivable.In1902, the correspondent of the London Times in Russia was expelled for too truthfully reporting one of the many organized persecutions of the Jews.Musical criticismpresents, for the historian, somewhat thesame fundamental problems as does the criticism of the dramaand of art.What then are the limitations of special correspondence ashistorical material?

The request was apparently granted by Croker.It was at once cabled to New York, and a copy given tothe Daily News.Notes by the way, pp.Any reportappearing in a score or a hundred newspapers, if it has a commonorigin may and often does lead to mischief.Campaigns of a War Correspondent, pp.

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The newspaper holds the interestof the public largely because of the variety of the news it presents, because the news is selected from every quarter of theglobe, because the appeal it makes to its readers is universal.Heaton, The Story of a Page, pp.Lord Morley has aptly said that reviewers are in a position similar to thatof a judge before whom is argued a patent right case or a suit about rubricsor vestments.For the Month of January, 1699.China, oldest newspaper of, 65; editorsin, 271.The author defends this on the ground that he isan expert and therefore able to do it.

If the press gains a reputation for inaccuracy through thecarelessness of reporters, it also suffers from the lack of positiveknowledge on the part of many of its members.More than any other form of illustrasuccessful.But that theseinterests have the right of way is not evident.An interviewer who understood only English and German cabled aninterview purporting to have been conceded by Benedict XV who spokeonly Italian and French.The influences at work to secure honest advertisements aretherefore of primary importance.

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Peninsular War, press in, 221.The difficulty of the historian in using such accountsarises from the frequent failure of the reporter to check up hisaccount with the event itself and he thereby falls into error.The editor takes the chancesand publishes accounts that not infrequently are corrected on thefollowing day by his rival editor.La Follette, Senator, misquoted byreporter, 126.Gaultier on object of, 397; classedwith editorials, 397.The newspaper has ceased to be a personal organ and hasbecome a social product; it no longer represents the interests ofan individual, but it represents rather a group activity.It is more nearly trueto say that mutually repellent influences have long prevailedin the connection between literature and the press.

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Yet I fear such a paper would find few subscribers.The company was struck with astonishment.Some errors are due to the temptationof the illustrator to see an event as he wishes it to be seen oras he thinks would produce a striking or artistic effect, 45 andothers can only be explained by the mental slovenliness that iswilling, in deference to a real or supposed popular demand forillustration, to make pictures from insufficient data.John of Jerusalem, Order of, 339.The Nation,September 9, 1880, 31: 185.

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The gulf between toleration and cordial welcome is wide anddeep.It has also published a circular of information, giving a brief history of them and suggesting some of the evidences of spuriousness that characterize them all.Prone to magnify their office.Here again the limitation arises from theabsence of proportion and of perspective that is imposed by thedesign and purpose that the paper has chosen for itself.Nor havethe American papers alone been the recipients of adverse criticism.The Athenaeum, July 23, 1870, 56: 117.He had long encouraged newspaper proprietors to publish parliamentary debatesand, as a result of a ruse to bring about a quarrelbetween the City23 Sir John Hawkins, Life of Samuel Johnson, pp.

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Attitude of artists towards illustration.Organization of the Central Press.New York Times, February 16, 1918.Connoisseur, The, quoted, 468.Newmyer, Convention of Advertising Clubs of the World, June 23, 1915.

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New York Times, October 25, 1916, and subsequently atintervals.Ah, Hingston, at your old game, trying to nobblethe Press!It hasbeen a great profession; apeace concluded is a great plague unto them, and if the wars hold, weshall have store of them; oh, men worthy of commendations; theyspeak in print.They are all good here; where are the wicked buried?It was categorically forbidden to send any news that was atall worth knowing, or to take any steps by which one could get possessionof any such news.In attempting to answer the question the student ofhistory must hesitate before giving a final and definite statement.

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Suez Canal, Palmerston and, 407.It is not his business to helpthe sale of books, or to coddle sensitive writers, or to makeeverybody feel comfortable about everything; discrimination isalways offensive in one quarter or another; and the reviewer,like other critics, discriminates, or is lost.New York State to bar from theirtheaters those who have criticized unfavorably their productions, or any one who is displeasing to them, providing theexclusion is not on grounds of race, color, or creed.Sheppard finds precedent for it in the Swedish Intelligencerwhich contained, he says, an entertaining correspondence about the armyof Gustavus Adolphus.Incidentally,Hansard is of consuming interest, the Congressional Record isdeadly dullThe opposition of legislative bodies to having their proceedingsreported seems inherent, certainly in their early history.Steevens, 210;on critics, 305, 312.If he continues his connection with a paper whose policies havechanged, he does so with a full realization of the principle involved.

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There is also, especially in the press of small places, the tacitunderstanding that certain news affecting certain families willnot be published.This independence gained after long struggle has, in the opinionof some, been threatened by masterful editors or proprietors.The attitude of the press itself towards illustrations has greatlychanged; once in a state of amiable but passive receptivity, ithas now become an active competitor for the best work of the1 The Mercurius Civicus was the first regularly illustrated periodical.The newspaper itself becomes uncritical of its own reviewersand throws upon them the responsibility of adverse or of favorable criticism, reserving to itself only the right of interferingwhen business interests are affected.Pariswhen the letter had been received, his mail was not openedduring his absence, and no explanation could be made prior tohis return.Well, gentlemen, are you pleased with what you haveseen?The correspondents of the presswere then the only writers of political communications whichbore the character of leaders; and, as reports of the debates werenot permitted, members of either house suffered equally with thepeople in possessing no common channel by which the one couldlearn, and the other convey, their sentiments.

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Robertson, who had begged for a notice, but I found so little good to saythat I am afraid he will hardly be grateful and that we have not muchassisted the sale of his book.If the reporter gives too many details,he may involve his paper in litigation; if he gives too few, hemay be reminded that he is not on a weekly paper.Walking Stick Papers, pp.Advertisements giving fictitious valuations of articles that theirowners desire to sell are, for the historian, unimpeachable recordsof prevailing low business standards.Philadelphia Public Ledger, daily press, January 1, 1915.

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Connection between press and government.The English press immediatelyraised a storm of protest against the banishment of correspondents from the field ofwar, 28 on the ground that if full reports werenot given patriotism would be lessened, 29 recruiting hindered,interest decreased, distrust roused, indifference created, andnervous tension fostered.Boonville Xerald, emblem of, 51.James, The Influence of the Press, pp.On his return to London he served some months as foreigneditor of The Times, and in July, 1808, went to Spain where for nearly sixmonths he again served as war correspondent for The Times.

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Fluctuating interests reflected in the press.Lyre, army paper, 25.Samuel Bowles and the Springfield Republican.These changes in the purpose of the newspaper have beenaccompanied by radical changes in its character.The war correspondent must adapt himself to new conditions.

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Itmust be recognized that there are certain general limitationson all criticism that must invalidate it for the historian.The frequent changes in policy that are inevitable when theeditor becomes to a certain extent dependent on the corporationtends to uncertainty in the conduct of the editorial page.When the goal was practically reached it was mergedwith The Woman Citizen.Itspermanent function, perhaps not yet fully recognized by thepress itself, is to record contemporary conditions.Macintyre, James, article by, cited,Lyndhurst, Lord, 255.

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Japan, article on yellow press in, cited,Inter Ocean, 47.The Roman Corpus with more than 200, 000 inscriptions indicates the extent to which these placards were a medium of communication between those wishing to give and to receive news.Bolshevism and the Jews.In the small country paper the editorial is almost disappearing, or hasbecome stereotyped and conventional.Whatever the decision made it must meet thewishes of the members and in turn the wishes of the readers ofthe newspapers represented in the Associated Press.The London Times long had, if not an additional, definite requirement, at least a strong preference for foreigners as its chief correspondents, and it numbered on its staff men of American,Czech, Hungarian, and Italian birth who rendered it signalservice.

Freytag, Gustav, drama by, 260.Hieroglyphicscontain the history of Egypt.In all of the appeals that the newspaper makes to its variedclasses of readers, through its own published advertisements ofitself, the paramount one is made to its advertisers.Obstacles of every form prevent him from reportinggenuine war news, and yet the demand for it exists.The specially able reporter may develop into a free lance andwithout being attached to any special paper, may be sent out toget reports where special tact, knowledge, and experience arenecessary, and thus have a connection with all the papers in thecommunity.The historian who usesthe newspaper must be familiar with the history of the press,and conform his use of it to the conditions under which it arose.

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Congdon complains of the amusement mongers who think thatnewspapers are specially printed for their use.See also Book review;Criticism.Yates County Chronicle, Penn Yan, New York.Many persons do not wish to beinterviewed, or they object to being interviewed on certain subjects, or it is inadvisable to give the interview at the time it issought.Embarrassment of the press in dealing with education.There is far more selection, repression,maiming, and focussing of news than was thought decent fortyyears ago.

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Two War Years in Constantinople,Pp.The power of the war correspondent who, while ostensibly sendside or the other, is assuredly very great and correspondinglyconstruction legislation of Congress.Since it is most frequently used to influence public opinion, itis often found in immediate proximity to the editorial columns,although often placed on the front or the back page where itcan be easily seen without turning the paper.The newspapers of the first half of the nineteenth century are also of goodquality, and when bound are as permanent as printed mattercan well be.It was Anthony Trollope who later found that while signature was good for thejournalist himself, anonymity was better for the public.

Specialcampaigns in favor of thrift and conservation were carried onby the lines of business that had suffered most from the thoughtlessness of their patrons.Welser thought them forged; Lipsius thoughtthem genuine.To the ordinary reader so much of the daily sheetsseems unnecessary, the pages of advertisements, the discussions by the inexpert and the local items of small note gathered from the world as news.Kinglake, Invasion of the Crimea, IV, 169.New York Tribune, May 21, 1919.Burnand, Recordsand Reminiscences, 2 vols.

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Adaptation of correspondent to new conditions.But while the endowed newspaper has been long, widely, andpersistently advocated, there has been no consensus of opinionas to the nature of the endowed newspaper and there has beenmuch confusion in regard to what such a paper really means.The principle of division of labor has entered theeditorial columns as it has the business office, and the editor whohimself once wrote on every subject now engages specialists towrite editorials in their own special field and the editorial officemay expand to include half a continent.Holy See, even when they deserved the severest censure.Perhaps the photostat offers aremedy, for the essential parts could be reproduced by it and on a paperwhich still uses a percentage of rag high enough to make it lasting.James Bonwick, Early Struggles of the Australian Press.

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And are not loneprefeat lave ours leat uppon the Beyerens by lince in the night soo Seuldiers paſſed by Dursforce, and foughe che vvhole day roeither, that our ofGulik, lo che peech gocrh meanineon both fides are Maine aboute 8000 men, and houldebe to build a nievv Sch.Development of modern newspaper.Theycould scarcely have said where they got their new impulse to exercise ajudgment independent of party.One paper may feature thelatest discovery in science, and another a wedding in high life orbelow stairs.English journalism as the corantoes.When it was the rule that a newspaper was edited byits owner, it was the excellence of the newspaper, and especiallyof its editorial, that determined the success of the paper.

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But here as elsewherewomen came quickly to develop newspapers owned, edited, andpublished by themselves and these continued until the weakeningof the artificial barriers that had separated the interests of menand women, and new alignments have ranged together all havinga common cause.How is he to regard the advertisement ashistorical material?These detailed illustrations are given to show how extremelydifficult it is to forge or to fabricate a newspaper so successfullythat its spuriousness escapes the eye of the trained observer.Hollweg in regard to the allegation that 200, 000, 000marks had been spent the first two years of the war for newspaper propaganda.Canning, George, Jerdan and, 88, 260.One advertiser recently ran a daily advertisement fortwo months after his store had been burned out.

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Greenwood on English,430; contradictory elements in, 437bibliographyCarriers.General high type of special correspondents.Organizations controlled by a single paper.Maurice and the religious press.The question hasapparently but one answer and the War Office, by whateverspecial name it may be known in the several countries, approvesand even formulates the plans for the discomfiture of the warcorrespondent.Russell and the Crimean War.

Henderson, Symbol and Satire of the French Revolution, 1912.Other passages are omittedaltogether by some editors.Dangers concealed in advertising.New York firm advertised the profits to be made by the Union Bagand Paper Company through the advantage it was able to take of thescarcity of paper.These letterspassed from hand to hand in the country districts and circulatedamong the houses of the gentry.The uncertainty in regard to what is the function of the pressand the blind distrust of the press find expression in the phrasesused with reference to it.See also Collegejournalism.

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Canning indicated to William Jerdan under date of June, 1826,that he was most unwilling to make any appointments where theconnection of the recipients with the press would make them objectionable.It encourages the studyof current events in schools, gives reduced rates to school classes,and offers prizes to school children in innumerable contests.It contained lettersfrom nearly thirty American mayors, testifying that reporters could not bedenied admission to the deliberations of the councils of their cities, eventhough there werean appointed printer to the board.The illustration, obviously incorrectin itself as regards the actual condition illustrated, may be aninteresting record of the successful effort of the artist to adapthis work to themental condition of those for whom he illustrates.Hemust go behind the face of the returnsand determine how far the value of these statements is impairedby the favors the individual paper has received at the hands ofthose having political authority.Today the situation is more acute thanit ever was, and the solution of the problem is as distant.It was the fear that I should beexpected to write strictly to order, and to advocate views opposedto my own convictions.

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Tyrwhitt Brooks, entitled Four Months Among theGoldfinders of Alta California, but in reality a hoax perpetrated by Vizetellyhimself, when the news of the discovery of gold in California reached England.ADVERTISING has been called the process of purchasing publicity and no phenomenon in the modern world has seemed soremarkable as hasits development.Others have included advertisements of patent medicines, massage,palmists, traps for purchasers or investors, loan sharks, questionable schemes,fraudulent or doubtful financial offerings, bucket shops, large guaranteeddividends, want advertisements that request money for samples or articles,home sewing, addressing envelopes, suggestive books, matrimonial offers,personals, attacks of a personal character, and whiskey and other liquors.Periodical literature must therefore be considered by the historian with reference to those general parts whose authoritativeness may be guaranteed and to such other parts as those inwhich errors aremost likely to abound.It wasvery widely circulated in the Atlantic states, in 1849, and has been more orless utilized by all careful students of the period to which it relates.

Maginn on, 117;letter to, 251.Deceptive reprinting of early newspapers.How is acommon ground to be found or manufactured between theseabrupt opposites?He may visit the offices of various public utilities anddecide that the agricultural districts are opposed to daylightsaving.EL FREEONCOUNTT GAZETTE.

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MacGahan, andmany other special correspondents in Europe and Asia.Welschinger, La Censure sous le premierEmpire, pp.But it is significant of the dependence of the publicon advertising, and therefore of the apparent necessity of usingthis means to secure a desired end, that each year apparentlysees a more and more extensive use of advertisingby the churches,and that a conference on advertising as a means of stimulatingchurch attendance was held in connection with the Conventionof the Associated Advertising Clubs of the World in Philadelphiain 1916.They are at all times successful in conveyingthrough a single word a meaning otherwise understood onlythrough a circumlocution.Legislative effort to reduce errors.Mutual dependence of press and Church.

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As historical material, the historian must accept the caricaturewar and in politics, it suggests the extremes in society, it isfrankly used as a weapon to defeat an end regarded by thecaricaturist as undesirable.English press of the day is found in All the Papers.This use of the advertisement has also had an extraordinary development since1914.American press, 56;on English press, 469.The judgment then meted out to a distinguished citizen ofAmerica by political opponents represented on the press has hadmany counterparts both before and since that time.Its obvious intention was to stir up disaffection and discouragement through reports of serious reverses ofthe Allies and of the impossibility of America being able to sendtroops to France before 1919.The subject wasfreely discussed and the result was the interview in the modern sense.

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See also Cartoons; Illustrations.He could,however, get no redress; the editor or his locum tenens told himthat one of their reporters had given it to him, and that he knewnothing more about it.America published without advertisements, anddepending for its support upon its political, historical, and literary interestand value.They contain such items ofpolitical and military news in London as would naturally at that time haveinterested an important provincial.After thatthey were very glad to pay for their advertisements.

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The critic stated he had writtenall three, but did so because the book was good and no one in England buthimself was interested in Russian literature, and the book would have gonewithout notice if he had not written these reviews.New York Evening Post, December 4, 1916.Scott gives an interesting table showing how closely the establishment of daily newspapers in Illinois followed the opening of new telegraphlines.The forerunner of the syndicated article was the paper in small townsprinted at a central office.He lives at national capitals and reports politicalpolicies and conditions.

During the war the spirit of infallibility once moreasserted itself to an extreme degree, but it seemed a passingphase and the close of the war is bringing a return of moderatejudgments and a decrease in that spirit of omniscience which is acharacteristic of ignorance.All blanketarraignments of the press are arrows sped at a venture.Picayune, New Orleans, suspended, 419.The authoritativeness of the press as historical material is to alarge degree determined by its personality.Later readers have pardoned their lack of inherent interest,but have found them spurious.

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Harrison Rose,a negro charged with murdering a farmer.In a similar way the state governments are directly or indirectly responsible for the publication of state laws, proclamations of governors, the calendars of state courts, the notices ofthe incorporation of stock companies, election notices, change ofpersonal name, reports of state bureaus or commissions chargedwith the oversight of state educational, charitable, reformatory,and penal institutions, and with the direction of all efforts toconserve food and fuel, and for other large classes of legal andpublic matters.This too is not a new device.Le Clerc shows that the first seven articles were printed in Pighius whogives his source as a manuscript found among the papers of Louis Vives.Porritt on writers of, 160; disappearance of, 160; Defoe and, 450.It is not unusual to find in editorial columnsscathing denunciations of a politicalparty or organization whoseadvertisements are found in the same issue.

American press, 32 he asks gratuitously for what may have avery considerable commercial value to the person interviewed,and the greater the expert is the person interviewed the moretime he must give the interviewer in order to avoid errors.Corresponding features in illustration and press.Nevertheless, journalism is the highest form of literature; for all thehighest literature is journalism.Americalyabtespts of ctheen newspaperLew, m isthatand England.The press in the industrial world.

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Few accounts of the ways of war correspondents have been written by censors; this is particularly outspoken.It is significant that Roman Catholics and Hebrews advertise theircharities but not their religious services.Kossuth, Hungarian debates reportedby, 177.The many volumes coming from the press that treat of newspaper reporting, advertising, and the more technical phases ofjournalism are in themselves some indication of how far the presscan be considered authoritative, and of a desire on the part ofthose connected with newspaper work to remove just causes ofcriticism.New York Evening Post, August 1, 1918.Ifthe newspaper stands the tests, some of the justifiable doubtsof the historian are answered.But the Baroness made no public address on theoccasion, the presentation of the gift being announced by thepresident of the college.

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He is in constant telegraphic communicationwith all these publications; he has engaged their editors in business relations with himself; and consequently his version of thestory and his views are bound to receive more or less favorableconsideration.Alien and Sedition Acts, 426; press and,250.When yousay that an author cannot write common sense or English,you mean that he does not believe in the doctrine of divineright.These limited guarantees are connected with the business administration of the press and the office management; the desirefor news in order to increase the circulation and the desire toincrease the circulation in order to attract advertisers make adistinct limitation in both directions.William Leggett and his editorials.Gazette de France, founded, 10, 14.

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The Timespublished April 18, 1887, a facsimile letter purporting to havebeen written by Parnell nine days after the Phoenix Park murders apologizing for his attitude in regard to them.Des, on literary press,Gillam, Bernard, Matthews on, 267268; cartoon by, 392.See also BoerWar.See Lytton, EdwardBulwer.One of the earliest, if not the first, of these republications was made inthe latter part of the seventeenth century.But why, in time of peace, military exercise, good drill, goodgeneralship, and the like, should count for more than solid judicialwork, and the like, is not so easy to see.

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The recognition of Lithuania and of Ukrainia was sought throughadvertisements; the Friends of Irish Freedom and the Russian EconomicLeague appealed for support through advertisements.Religious journalismgroups every special sect, however largeor small it may be.Early proposal in the Independent.The emblem of a newspaper in still another way indicates itspersonality.These illustrations have been given to suggest not only the unreliability of the early reports of Parliament, but even more theobstacles placed in the way of reporters that made these subterfuges necessary.The question must at least be raisedwhether the omission of news by the press must always beattributed to wilful suppression.

And the love of jesting has been perennial.They must surmount not only the initial difficultiesinvolved in collecting reliable news, but they later encounterthe obstacles of censorship; the exigencies of reaching telegraphand cable stations through the dangers inherent in war conditions; the congestion of telegraph and cable lines; the dangers totheir own morale through merciless criticism and entire lack ofappreciation of the difficulties under which their work is done;the piracy of rival organizations and the prolonged litigationthat ensues; the growing embarrassment of securing importantitems of news from those in a position to give them; the temptathe Holy See.The advertisement of churches and advertising campaigns topromote church attendance have not as yet met with universalfavor, and the proposal so to use the advertisement has givenrise to the charge that the churches are becoming sensationaland to heated discussion as to whether church advertising isethical.At the end of the first Afghan War, Lord Ellenborough issueda proclamation stating that he had restored to India the socalled gates of Puttun Somnath, carried away by the Mohammedans.But that is precisely what I want.If a person previouslyunknown is unexpectedly appointed or elected to an importantoffice, the interview immediately gives his views on allsubjects,the weight of authority is attached to the office, in the opinionof the interviewer, rather than to the person filling it.Very few selectjournalism as an occupation because the social prestige belongingto the profession and professional pride among journalists are asundeveloped as when Freytag wrote Die Journalisten.

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In the consideration of public health, the press is not so muchdivided against itself as it is divided with reference to the partsof the subject itself.Personality seen in questions selected or omitted.American papers, 55; on his experidramatic.Do you prefer to live next door to a shark?CARTERET, JohnGRANT, Albert, Baron1904 authorpoet and philosophertranslator, author1833 1885 administrator, soldier.It is evident that this standard of perfection set up in 1699includes principles of literary reviewing that have had a fluctuating acceptance, as it also suggests some of the stumblingblocks that have always been found in the path of both reviewerand publishers.

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NewYork Evening Post, May 26, 1919.Pennsylvania, State Editorial Assn.Noone can watch the development of our current journalism withoutbecoming aware that this sense of responsibility to the public israising the whole level of the American press.Bernhardi, cartoonists ignorant of, 399.Itmust be evident that scarcely a single field of human thoughtor activity has not been entered by the advertiser, 73 and that theof estates, indicated by citations from court decisions why they were orwere not legally liable for losses sustained, and explained how these lossesto estates, to executors, or to administrators could have been avoided.

The business habits of a periodical in conducting its own affairsare something of an index to its personality.Frequent device in official circles.The meetingwas at the last moment abandoned on the advice of the health officer, butresidents of the city report that no Cleveland paper noted that themeetinghad been given up, although the press had in advance given wide publicityto it.Yet in this, as in every other question connected with the press,no one answer fits all cases.MacGahan and Forbes wrote for a highly educated class, the photographercaters to a public that either can not read or has no time to read.

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As the wireless telegraph was not then in operation, itwas practically impossible for any one to know what happened to theParis between ports.Scott on the Western coast ofAmerica to protest against the rigid sectarianism of still anotherdenomination.Partisan League for Good Government brought detailed and exhaustivecharges against the administration of Governor Whitman.The Biſhop ac Halberſtade, Duke Chriſtiaceat Bruynſvvyck, doth cauſe tobe taken on 2000money.Easter in the illustration.He, therefore, refused to continue connection with the paper under this system.

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Associated Press not responsible for changes made by others.Bad as many of our journals are, Heavenknows, they cannot be set against each other for a moment, anddecency is not befriended by any effort to excuse the transatlanticblackguardism, which is so intense that I seriously believe wordscannot describe it.Even the independent political press may have itspolitical animosities towards individuals or specific politicalquestions, and on these special points its opinions and its statement of facts must be discounted.The British Parliament has come to tolerate, but it does not officially recognize the reporter and therefore all reporting has beenthrough the reporters of individual newspapers or through pressagencies.It was published atPortsmouth, New Hampshire, and was edited by Elias Smith.

Without official patronage it could not have lived in so strong a1 One instance of this violation of confidence occurred during the administration of President Roosevelt with the result that the reporter was forbidden the White House.Here nothing is known about this alarming state ofthings, and in Johannesburg it is even less apparent.Manners and social circles.DISRAELI, Benjamin, first Earl ofBeaconsfieldDOESTICKS, see THOMSON, MortimerDOOLEY, Mr.Illustration a prolific source of error.

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But specialization affects the work of the reporter and notonly divides it into the great classes of the general and the officialreporter, but each class becomes specialized.Spread of schools of journalism.Women On the Webcollection of homepages and other stuff of, by, and about women.Prince von Bülow madein the Reichstag, pp.Somewhat similar conditions were found in America during thesame period.The army is depleted.New York Evening Post, November 25, 1916.

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The newspaper advertising of these efforts has been indirectbut not the less important.The reviews will allmurder me on acct.The nineteenth century saw the development ofanother curious custom: newspaper proprietors printing their own presstickets, with which some dozen or more persons were sent to a theatre eachnight.The greatmiddle class is more normal in its conditions and itsinterests and these the illustration also faithfully represents.The liveliest magazine in America.The question of whether the churches shall advertiseregrets that any one should have found in the foregoing advertisementanything derogatory to Mr.History of Literary Criticism in the Renaissance,pp.

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But with this somewhat superficial jolting of society out of its traditional grooves through the development of new interests, the parallel illustration shows how other conditions move with glacier slowness towards perfectibility.Changes in celebrating holidays shown.The illustration, like the press, may tell a plain unvarnishedtale, it may present a series of unadorned facts, it may give anembroidered story, it may represent a picture in artistic form, itmay give information in regard to existing conditions, it mayhave a purely commercial object, it may be intended to interpretsituations little understood, it may be used to influence publicopinion in both an open and a secret way.Petris Keerius, dvvelling in the Calverstreete, in the uncertaine time.It may show incontestably that many of the participants instrike riots have been mere boys, presumably encouraged bytheir elders to take part in them.World had not been at fault.

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Development of the Associated Press.Theplan was worked out before the troubles with Mexico and wasapproved both by the army and the press.The editor resides at 45 Prospect Street, and if there should be anyone desiring to get in touch with him they may ring Phone 674, outside ofoffice hours, night or day.The Life and Errors of John Dunton, I, 188.Editor states that steps to prepare such a bill weretaken February 12, 1906, by a Committee of the Newspaper Society.You ask the Bureau to inquire of a definitethe information, keeping your name secret.Carelessness merges imperceptibly into blundering and thisin its turn is responsible for innumerable errors.

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The current interest in athletics has been constantly utilized to illustrate and to sell innumerable articles.Industrial News Bureau Service, 127.The truth need not fear them, nor do I wish theRidgway Branch of the Philadelphia Library to be encumbered with theephemeral biographies, novels, and works of fiction or amusement, newspapers or periodicals, which form so large a part of the current literatureof the day.The Débats and someother journals contain extracts from the English newspapers upto the 22nd ult.CHAPTER VIITHE OFFICIAL REPORTER,Development of the official reporter.News collecting agencies and the historian.Duke of Saxen Lau.

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Philip Yorke, second son of Lord Hardwicke.They show national differences in workmanship, in object, in method of treatment, and in underlyingspirit.The Emperors ourncyro Prague Mallbegin the fift ofdu.Poe, nearly eightyyears ago, sent out the same warning, though with a note ofhope.Hatin, Bibliographiede la presse périodique française, pp.Its magnificent building providesan observatory on the roof that furnishes information about thestate of the weather, a searchlight shows the location of firesand flashes the news of important events, while a siren whistledirects attention to most unusual news.It is limited by its numerous accidental and intentional errors,by the inherent characteristics of certain great classes like thatof caricature, by the language it employs, and it is also limitedby the insatiate demand of the public for daily cartoons fromthe same popular artist.

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Providence to anticipate the future ofmankind.Third Avenue Railway Co.London Review, Cumberland and, 315.The antipathy of General Sherman to the war correspondentsof the American Civil War was no less pronounced.Difficulties of the special correspondent.American colleges and universities.

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The illustrator may be limited by the psychological conditionsof those for whom he illustrates when he understands that theirthoughts have not kept pace with modern invention.Thorndike, Rachel Sherman, ed.There may be some ground for the general feeling of authors that criticsdo not do them justice and often criticize the vestments rather than rendera decision in the question involving their use.Virgil, translated by William Morris.The historian can not hope to findhis best perspective through the eyes of petted social favorites.

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One Bureau began an interesting campaign against fraudulent advertising with the double object of teaching the consumer how to detect suchadvertisement and of getting advertisers to give up misrepresentations.Success of government advertising in England.Is war menacing the world?Westminster islimited; and that in general the Government can make littlereturn to newspapers that support it.Climate and weather conspire against him; and dust, smoke,wind, fog, rain, snow, blinding sun, and darkness may preventhim from receiving accurate news.Thisform of communication with the public well suited his purposesince through the interview he could give certain topics publicityand could choose the time when his words would have the besteffect.

Words andTheir Uses, pp.Differences between advertisements and editorials.Columbia University, school of journalism at.It is entirely upto YOU.Plan of de BlowitzSentiment against it in EnglandAnd in Canada.It mustthus be classed with the editorial as a means of influencingpublic opinion, 61 and even of rousing international hatreds.

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Politicians and statesmen are everywhere the severest critics ofthe political system.But the press suffers a heavy handicapwhen it attempts to improve other conditions that militateagainst the health of the public.Barring change in names, the societycolumns vary little from one social season to another.Campbell,Reminiscences and Reflections of on Octogenarian Highlander, pp.Cherokees, newspapers of, 65.Vossische Zeitung, nickname of, 50.These are suggestions of the general criticisms of the press thatas far as they are supported by evidence must militate againstthe authoritativeness of the press.

Sven Hedinin With the German Armies in the West.See William II, Emperor.The recent transfer of ownership of the New YorkEvening Post was accompanied by a statement that the transferwould not affect in any way the editorial policy of the paper.Watterson, Henry, on business manager,264.Scott to certain clergymen who had written him protesting that it was not the function of the editor of a secular newspaper to advocate or to attack the peculiar views of any church.The London Sun printed in letters of gold an account of the coronationof Queen Victoria in 1838.

The immediate psychologicalreaction of theadvertisement on the individualprospectivebuyer is being supplanted by the appeal to the remotepast; the simple object of putting before the public the merits ofcommercial articles is being superseded by complex competitiveadvertising that has all of the characteristics of a race.Thabor holds our ſtill, and daily cake fallins out, sodac.Beginnings of news collecting in America.PREFACEPeccavi should be the opening word of many prefaces.Bennett and court reporting.

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The material, he shows, was taken fromLivy and he believes the forgery dates from the sixteenth century.Pleiades: An Internet resource for womenAgreat place for the internet beginner to start out.As early as 1810 he hadwritten to Croker stating with much emphasis his entire andabsolute disapproval of the English press and of newspapers ingeneral.Cesare, Forain, and Raemaekers.Thereview thus seems more congenial to the daily press, the criticalessay to the weekly, monthly, or quarterly, 68 and each type ofperiodical is prone to believe that it is best adapted for presentingto the public the merits or demerits of literary works.

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The function of thedramatic critic is, then, primarily, to consider how successful inthe rendition is the public performance of a play.Features common to illustration during war.Southern writers constantlycomplained that the Northern papers did not notice their works.Much more questionable must be deemed the action of one branch of the Governmentin asking the aid of the New England press in reporting disloyalty.The long list of special correspondents from Henry Crabb Robinson to the present time shows men who have appreciated andlived up to these responsibilities.

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Officials regard him as an easyprey and may mislead him; all information that is important isgiven him under the stipulation that he must not disclose it; theeditorial office is anxious to emphasize the authoritativeness ofthe information, while the more the source is unimpeachable thegreater is the reluctance to have it disclosed.James haspointed out.It is thus most frequently found inthe advertising columns.We were immediately overloaded with Letters, and sometimes I have found several hundreds forme at Mr.Paul Petau who was not acritical collector.Owners and illustrators261.

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Judgment, fluency, accuracy, literary skill, all must bethere; and they must be always ready.The anecdote is given by Peter Harvey, Reminiscences of DanielWebster, pp.The governments of the contending parties step in and practically assume control of themachinery of collecting and distributing news.Journalist, in Bohemian Days in Fleet Street, chap.He knows that beforeeverything else this materialmust be both authentic and authoritative; if the sources he uses are defective in either particular,the history that he writes rests on shifting sands and his workcollapses with the first breath of criticism that discloses the weakness of its foundations.

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Speech in the May number, and later gave a few harmlesscommunications.Denial of them by war correspondents.Many caricatures seem tohim to be simply the genre scenes of the painter, differing only in that theyevoke thought while the genre painting simply acts upon superficial vision.Mercury, Leeds, Reid reporter for, 168.The society debutante will read of the temptations of the Boweryand of Chinatown, while the shop girl pores over the descriptions of Mrs.Magazine, wherethe origin of the transcription is attributed to the Annales ofPighius published in 1615 and their genuineness vouched forby the learned Dodwell in 1692.

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Life and Times, pp.Interview sought for definite ends.MyExperiences as a War Correspondent.My delivery is,I believe, too rapid.Life showswithin the range of afew years the decline in the use of fabulous and prehistoricanimals and the use made of representations of the devil.Even advertisements are not infrequentlysigned by the name of the writer.The seamy side shown.

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His speedy disappearance has often been predicted and?Athenaeumthat this position was attained.The literature relating to The Federalist is scarcely less extensive thanthat relating to the letters of Junius.They are illustrated by a comparison of thesociety columns in these two classes of papers.The whole was afterwards communicated tome, and I composed the speeches in the form which they now have in theParliamentary Debates.Editorials on large, important subjects are oftenwritten with the home town in mind and in relation to local interests.Under the influence of experimental psychology they developed enormously inextent and in effectiveness, and their appeal was centered on theproduct, the nature of the finished article to be sold.

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The business officeexerts not a direct but a moral influence, so to put it, upon theliterary department.Smallmatters in this way may be magnified and mere conjecturesinvested with nearly the dignity of facts.Souldier of great experieOn Whitſunday his grace let Budihafor Hoffman Von Ger.XXVInstability of criticism.There are not many newspapers which canafford to defy a large advertiser.It mayalso take a comprehension of the organization of the AssociatedPress to appreciate that whatever its shortcomings may be,suppression of news by it is absolutely unthinkable.The nomination of Mr.

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Prussian government, ofbeing a spy on the German political refugees in America, and of receiving fabulous sums for his political speeches.Lockhart, Memoirs of Sir Walter Scott, I, 22.Congratulations on discontinuing its fashion page were sent to theNew York Tribune, June 15, 1918.But the rest, including much that had beencarefully premeditated, is irrevocably lost.Conditions of life have greatly changedsince that day and advertisements with them.

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No correspondent can do that here.ISerrorsCauses of these erTO.His Five Decades ofAdventure.We havethus, through our cleverness, created a fashion and a demand from the publicfor something which is often elaborately untrue.Efforts to determine personality by comparing relative proportions ofsubjects.Page in the New York Evening Post, November 7, 1914.

The extent attained in America by special correspondence prior to theCivil War has been described by Allan Nevins in the New York EveningPost, August 10, 1921.The illustration thus records the same tendencies as are foundin other formsof news to represent the abnormal, the conspicuous,and the unusual.The love of jesting is behind many statements that unless subsequently explained, must be puzzling to the historian.Its legitimacy not yet unquestioned.The daily newspaper is without any question the best advertisingmedium for the Church.It was probably natural that his statements in regard to hisdiscovery should be repeatedly copied; all accounts of TheEnglish Mercurie and all allusions to it are to be traced directlyto this account.But he found that if asked to writesomething he could not approve, another subject was promptlysubstituted by Delane.

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Gouda, was commited priſoacr.Although the first fleet forAustralia carried out a printing press in 1787, no one in thecolony was able to set type and when the first paper was issuedin 1803 it was found that Australia had not only inherited allof the press disabilities of the mother country but it had addedto them the trouble of securing paper and ink as well as compositors since ships were sent out but once or twice a year.Somewhat later a proposal was made by the Morning Post,the London Outlook, and a writer on the Daily Mail for a billmaking it a penal offense to publish unauthorized news of navaland military movements, the bill to be passed in time of peace,but to lie dormant until needed and then to be made instantlyoperative by Order in Council.Attitude of historian towards collective illustration.People and Problems,pp.Johannesburg, false news from, 189.Accessories of lifeTendency towards specialization.

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Moreover, it must be evident that these errors are apparently morefrequent in the newspapers published in small towns and citiesthan they are in the great metropolitan dailies, and this in spiteof the apparent ease with which the truth of the statements received can be known or verified.Is the newspaper an authoritative source for the study ofhistory?Industrial conditions advertised344.Zeitung, favorite newspaper name inGermany, 50.Theliquor dealers destroy our moral fibre.

The interview is often soughtwith persons who are momentarily prominentand it is frankly sought for this reason, not because any weight isattached or, under other circumstances, would ever be attachedto what is said by the person interviewed.The superficial details may vary, but the source remainsthe same, and hence the responsibility is a constant one.From the first Ritchie did notdisguise his purpose to speak for the administration and hisexpectation of compensation for such service.Vizetelly, Glances Back Through Seventy Years, I, 386.Are Journalism andLiterature Incompatible?

Important literary works in the newspaper.All of these difficulties the reporter may overcome, but healways has to reckon with the speakers.It purported to be the current issue, but its cover reproduced a cartoon of the Civil War that at the time had justly given great offense to the North.He finds in it a record of waste andextravagance everywhere tolerated by a wasteful, extravagantsociety.The solemnity and finality of his sentence of literary deathpronounced upon Wordsworth, can hardly be surpassed.

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Responsibilities entailed by war.All these changes in the work of the reporter are both a causeand a result of the change in his social status.Jefferies ought to have been his name.Standard, London, 48; nickname of, 50;its correspondent expelled from Russia, 186.Graham bread, orwhether he understands a given Scripture text this way or thatway.

In its early days thecriticism was rude, and wanting in delicate insight; for the most part toodictatorial, and often unfair.In both cases, thefinal court of appeal ruled that the managers had a right toexclude a dramatic critic from their theaters whenever theypleased.Royce, in New York Times, July 15, 1917.British armies, said that nothing had ever demonstrated soclearly the usefulness of advertising.Russell sent letters to The Times.

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Hunt, in Then and Now, chap.Pitfalls of the review.Wilcox, and President Henry Noble MacCracken have been great and constant.Poland, relief of, 338, 339.Heaton, The Storyof a Page, pp.These illustrate fairly well the extent of thematerial available.

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Poe favored signed criticism.As historic records the world will file its newspapers.Crown Prince holding his stirrup,and the old King of Prussia hoisting Russell into the saddle.Limitation of speed requirements.Must eyes be all in all, the tongue and earNothing?

Thomas Arnold held an unusual view in regard to anonymity.Moltke is dead, that the Crown Prince is dying of a fever,that Bismarck is anxious to negotiate, but is prevented by theobstinacy of the King, that three hundred Prussians from thePolish provinces have come over to our side, and that the Bavarian and Wurtemberg troops are in a state ofincipient rebellion.They follow one another, column after column, without anyorder, either of subject or of chronology.The newspaper is concerned with questions of mail trains, ofautomobile stage routes, and of railway rates.What was considered unusual in 1869 has now becomethe usual.Excellent as was the report in itself, it brought no immediaterelief for a troublesome situation in England.THE first war correspondent of modern times may be said tohave been Julius Caesar who, happily for posterity, combinedwith his duties as war correspondent those of censor and editor.

Not for nothing have our schools of advertisementwriting and our advertising agencies wrestled with the English language.If many errors found in the press spring frominaccuracy, ignorance, lack of observation, and similar causes,they must be explained by the inadequacy of the reporter, andthe remedy would seem to lie in securing reporters who have hadbetter training, giving them greater responsibility, and holdingthem to higher standards.It was not, however, until 1863 that the germ of the idea ofCave and of Watts took form in the largely amplified plan ofWilliam Saunders and Edward Spender for the organization ofthe Central Press.Bureau of Accuracy and Fair Play.Brace Memorial Newsboys Home, 99.Daily press, September, 1916.The reviewer himself becomes the subject of review on thepart of more or less unfriendly critics.

The conditions have immeasurably improved.Critics they are not.And lies and ill she loves no less than sooth which she must bear.The value of his reports must be estimated by thesuccess he has had in overcoming collective opposition, in understanding the idiosyncrasies of individual speakers, and in securingsuch freedom from the letter as enables him to preserve the spiritof what he reports.Critics are often misled by reprints, by lack of information inregard to the interval between the date of writing and the dateof publication, or the date of publication and that of republication.

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Personal memoirs are often random recollections, often garrulous, some times censorious, and, especially the earlier ones, usually written so carelessly and so lacking in a sense of order and system as to give rise to the constant query how such work could come from professional journalists.See also Dooley, Mr.The advertising campaign urging the conservation of food,fuel, and travel for pleasure was apparently universal.Was The Times of Delane a mirror, aguide, or an initiator?Tappan, Arthur, Journal of Commercestarted by, 370.The advertisement has been urged as an effective means ofteaching world brotherhood; 37 it has even been suggested thatthe friendship between the Entente Alliance and the UnitedStates has been the result of business relations established manyyears ago, 38 while an equally strong case could be made outferences of the Protestant Episcopal Church had unanimously endorsed theuse of the advertising columns of daily newspapers for general church publicity as well as for evangelistic purposes.Unfortunately, the universalfear of incurring the charge ofdisloyalty and of lack of patriotismcasts a heavy shadow over the press.

New York Times, December 7, 1914.Of the eleven quoted, three sermons seemed to urge some formof military preparation; the others were silent or definitelyopposed to the plan.The Sisson documents were intended to discredit the Soviet government by showing that it was having improper dealings with Germany.The bulk of long runs of the daily paper must, however, always prevent the usual public or college library from having on its shelves more than a very limited number of bound volumes of newspapers.Sinking of two German destroyers by British cruiser in theNorth Sea.He will be a mere transmitter by strictly defined channels of carefullyrevised intelligence liable to be altered, falsified, cancelled, or detained atthe discretionof the official set in authority over him.

Gauss, The German Emperor, pp.Kinglake, The Invasion of the Crimea, IV, Appendix XV.December 3, 1917.Precisely what a fifty dollar bond would buy and theextent to which the loan would help the government wasexplained, and then the shield was turned and the advantage ofthe loan as an investment also shown.Courier, London, 48; extract from, sentMottoes.

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From the standpointof news, it matters little whether it concerns a hardened criminal,an unknown man who is the victim of an accident, or a distinguished visitor whose presence is disclosed by hotel register orsteamer passenger list.This examination was made by a committee of scholars, but its report did not meet with unanimous acceptance.Edward Porritt has shown how in Canada the patronage of theDominion Government has been bestowed on the newspapersthat supported the Liberal Party.Even if he cannot accept the statements that many advertisers have made inthe past, in that fact he finds encouragement through the realization it brings of growing intelligence and higher morality.Catholic faith, it is ourpride and our duty to maintain.The general reporterdevelops into the one who specializes on financial news, or onreporting crime, or society news, or on the shipping trade, orany one of the multifarious activities and interests of a great city.

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As a result of this changing attitude of both press and artistand the growing demand of the public for illustrations of everydescription in every department of the newspaper the illustrationhas become an epitome of the press as a whole.SpaniſhThippes loded with all kiode of wares, and that Ohip of wariefor the Scaces are laydbefore allche Sea hauens of Portugaland Spaine.Press in part records these sources.Weekly, June 6, 1914.English, the war news given was almost inevitably colored by English sympathies.Such use as he makes of the press is confined to those portions of it that will lend color and vivacity tothe past and aid him in giving a graphic description of societyand especially of the external manoeuvres of political society.But these very opportunities are fraught with danger.

Figaro, Moniteur imitated by, 415.But there came a sharp decline in the demand for verbatims.Parliament had cause to be amazed attheir own eloquence whilst Dr.The placard never grew into a newspaper, but remained the medium of publicity until the end of the Empire.Newsgirls, at subway stations, 99.New York Times, June 25, 1915.Its tone during its palmy days was epicurean and this was the source of its popularity in the circles bywhich it was chiefly supported.

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Plate service is furnished in the form of43 New York Evening Post, December 5, 1917.But Lord Morley himselfgives an interesting illustration of the sympathy that may exist betweenauthor and reviewer.Literarycriticism is indeed not altogether the simple matter it is oftenassumed to be; it covers the whole field from advance noticessent out by publishers and continued on jacket covers 13 to themore permanent and more genuine criticism of the great criticalquarterly reviews.Matthew Arnold had a true appreciation of what is involved inpersonality, and while he may have been wrong in his interpretation of the personality of The Times, yet no clearer indicationof its personality, as he understood it, can be found than his identification of it as a character in literature.Sir John Hawkins, Life of Samuel Johnson, pp.He may be entirely ignorantof horsemanship.

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Responsibilities and opportunities of foreign correspondents.Diary of the Besieged Resident, pp.Theman who first took advantage of the general curiosity thatwasexcited by a siege or a battle, to betray to the Readers of News intothe knowledge of the shop where the best Puffs and Powders were tobe sold, was undoubtedly a man of great sagacity, and profound skillin the nature of Man.Watts, Alaric Watts, II, chap.Specialarticle, 11; its effect on editorial,262.Wemust finish with journalism, as we have finished with barricades.Walkley from the Garricktheater.

This offended Dickens who returned the article with a letter inwhich he says it could hardly be otherwise than painful to Forster that heshould insert in his magazine an account of Landor without a word of commendation for a biography that had cost a world of care and trouble.When the conditions giving rise to this class of newspapers werealtered, the newspapers themselves disappeared.New York Evening Post, December 29, 1917.Work of Louis Klopsch, pp.Yet neither can afford to neglect the other and thehistorian is equally dependent on both.War is represented only on its defensive, never on its aggressiveside, and the advertisements have never suggested the hardships,privations, and suffering that are inevitable in all war, nor havethe advertisements carried any guarantee that the inducementsheld out will ever be fulfilled.

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Reid, Memoirs of Sir Wemyss Reid, chap.Some of these do not technicallygive news, but others, like theCongressional Record, that ostensiblygive official records and are, therefore, presumably authoritative,are in reality open to grave doubt on that score.In America he has more than once left the editorial sanctum to represent his country at foreign courts.Others have shown a mild interest in theestablishment of such courses in London and in the provincialuniversities, while disapproving of them for Oxford and Cambridge.Correspondents are now well informed of impendingoperations and they decide among themselves the best point of view fromwhich to see them and after the attack is over, all meet at the press headquarters and exchange notes.Since thenewspaper in its illustrations tends to the form of the caricature,the cartoon, and the photograph, it has as a rule greater value forthe historian than have the illustrations of the magazines that,outside of the advertising pages, tend to the purely ornamental.

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Appeal to judgment of the public.The forger was arrestedand held for trial.Ignorance of the geographical features of the countries fromwhich he writes confuses his accounts.The artistic insightof the illustration enables it not only to interpret the presentbut also often gives it a prophetic character not found elsewhere.Its design was to upset the stock market, advantage of whichcould be taken by the promoters of the forgery.

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There can be little doubt that the audience which reads dramaticcriticism and which then formulates its governing principles,asks of the critic primarily, How good is this drama as drama?Battle flags, gay uniforms, andmartial music have disappeared from the front and their placeis taken by smokeless powder, khaki, trench warfare, andall the arts of concealment suggested by the word camouflage.But sometimesafter altering the explanatory text!The press itself realizes that the distrust with which it is regarded springs largely from its own inaccuracy and carelessnessand that it must itself remedy this condition if it is to have theconfidence of its readers.The Dutch caricaturists rendered efficientservice against the pretender and his family.

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Klopsch, in 1885,began syndicating the sermons of Dr.Is there anything in the paper, Sir?As long as knowledge, asinterpreted by this system, is something kept in a closed chestcontaining the accumulations of the years and is to be handeddown from generation to generation, the press will continue toconceive its function to be teaching rather than learning andthereby incur distrust.The declaration of waragainst Germany and the declaration of the armistice were received by the public with equal demonstrations of rapturous joybecause each furnished a new sensation.We had a blazing star by the lastmail from Genoa; and, in the present dearth of battles, havebeen very opportunely entertained, by persons of undoubtedcredit, with a civil war in the clouds, where our sharpsightedmalcontents discovered many objects invisible to an eye that isdimmed by Whig principles.Uncertainty as to its reflection of public opinion.Changes important for historian.

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If the sins of omission and of commission on the partof the press are not widely known, it is not because of lack ofpublication through the columns of the press itself.Farm and Garden, 48.Moreover, he realizes that the most severearraignments of the influence exerted by the advertiser on journalism have come, not from the critics of the press, but from themembers of the press itself.CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONPAGEThe use of periodical literature as an historical source.The subjects chosen foreditorials have infinitely broadened in scope.Opposition of medical profession.The apparent trustworthinessof an official document was thus overthrown by the unimpeachable evidence of a style of art confirmed by the use of themicroscope.

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September is considered entitled to half a column.Matthew Arnold on personality of AmericanWalt Whitman on the press.He kept this attitude by ignoringthe divisions among the Catholics, rather than by criticisingthem.Like many another serious jest, the reputed remark wasa volume in itself.It is clear that in the case of the English Mercurieand probably in that of the Commonwealth Mercury the objectof the fabricators could only have been the love of a jest or thedesire to lay a harmless trap for unsuspecting readers.Welfare work through correspondence columnsSocial workers apparently indifferent to pressMutual relations of press and education.Conservative papers ofwhich Watts was in charge about 1832.

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New York Evening Post, Feb.Romaine to endeavourto see the different correspondents of the newspapers and quietly pointout to them the public inconvenience of their writings, and the necessityof greater prudence in future, and I make no doubt that they will at oncesee that I am right in so warning them.Do you prefer to walk arm in arm in the street with a person whose appearance would indicate that he was headed for a free lunch counter rather thanwith a person of character?Temperate, sincere, and intelligent inquiry and discussion are only to be dreadedby the advocates of error.Turkes, and 10lo Morauia, there aremore principall Lords and Purgersthouſand Carcanions aremarching xeco fallup.Whathe wants to know is, how many and what class of persons see it, not howmany persons agree with it.

The Life of Walter Savage Landor has yet to bewritten.The latest edition noted is dated 1906, and the latest work relative toJunius, 1917.Bugle,Bell, Chimes, Harp, Phonograph, Tocsin, Town Crier, Trumpet,Voice, Warbler; Beacon, Light, Torch.Answer of the historian.He also notes that it would be difficult to discover from the cartoons thatGermany was at war with France since the German cartoons are so generallydirected against England and are especially vindictive against Sir EdwardGrey; he is represented in a score of different ways and for the most part in arepulsive manner.Laws concerning freedom of the press and libel laws are ofnecessity very general in character and they form only the first,outer breastworks that protect the historian from the concealment of truth on the one hand and from deliberate falsehood onthe other hand.Greece and Rome, banished from the editorial columnsof the periodical press, live on in perpetual youth in the advertising pages.

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The chief sources used in this work have been found in the Justice collection of material relating to the press.Thus it must be frankly recognizedthat the secular press has been interested in religion less from adesire to promote the cause of religion than from a wish tofurther the interests of the press.From the Berner Bund, citedby the Literary Digest, November 3, 1917, 55: 16.Other errors must be explainedby the mechanical difficulty of making corrections after theblock has left the hand.He finds a recordof the primitive instincts towards conquest not held in check byother higher primitive instincts towards mutual aid and cooperation; of economic conditions that have had as yet butsuperficial examination.And this, too, with not even a singleengraving in the opening number derived from an authentic source!

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New York paper gave two columns toextracts from eleven sermons out of the twelve hundred preached.Washington and Lee University, Bulletin, Vol.Phoenix Park, murders in, 417.Godkin, Unforeseen Tendencies ofDemocracy, pp.If in the discussion of the relations of the newspaper and the historian the newspaper has occupied the foreground, it is hoped that it will be found that all lines have converged on the historian in the background.

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New Republic, May27, 1916, 7: 93.Does the press suppress news?While his intentions may be the best, he mayunconsciously have his reports colored by a desire to spare thefeelings of his friends or by a wish to promote their interests.The newer is the commodity to be put on themarket themore insistent is the appeal to the past.As to newspapers there can also be no doubt on the point ofpolicy, but to carry it into effect involves difficult and costlyproblems ofmanagement.

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New York Sun, November 30, 1913.Changes in character of the pressUndue emphasis on abnormal events.While it is recognized that the press24 New York Evening Post, March 30, 1911.This unquestioning acceptance of information has been oflong duration.Church, but it neither asks favors of the Churchnor gives them.First Glimpses at Parliament.

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Interviews sought with persons momentarily prominentPrepared interviews.Allison, New York Tribune, June 6, 1917.This isevident to any onemaking a collection of clippings on any currentquestion.Nouvelle Revue, La, 25.It takes courage to tell the reader that plenty of thingshappen every day which are none of his business.England its firstnewspapers.In the early historyof a comparatively undeveloped country, the value of governmentprinting is very great and is eagerly sought, since without lawsto be printed and politicians to have organs, newspapers couldhardly be kept alive.

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Public and private hospitals publish the vital statistics thatcome under their jurisdiction, and boards of health and healthofficers are in their turn responsible for other information inregard to health conditions.Association of Collegiate Alumnaeleading weekly in New York City published in its issue, datedNovember 2, a long and complimentary account of the celebration.Goethe long ago noticed that, whereasGermans reviewed one another as enemies whom they hated, thecritics of the Globe reviewed one another as gentlemen.Efforts to improve correspondence.New York Times, November 4, 1917.Hatcher, Last Four Weeksof the War.But the historian cannot go into the question of motive, except in so far as the pressitself announces the reasons for its course.

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You owe it to yourself and your family to take care of your inner self.It is also this question of the place of the press that must determine whether the press is an organ or a forum.United War Workers, 338.La Caricature en Angleterre,chap.It may be found in full in the New York Times, December 1, 1920, and further evidence in the same journal ofFebruary 25, 1921.

The amount of sagacious, instructional,and descriptive comment in his total output is amazing.Magazine which has involved every oneconnected with it in alternate anxiety, disgrace, and misery.The entire story may be found inthe Vassar Miscellany News, January 25, 1919.He therefore proposed a plan by which a Frenchofficer, then engaged in this contraband traffic, should exchangeit for that of supplying French papers only to the English; hecould then be granted Admiralty protection to his vessel, uponthe sole condition that no smuggled goods should be transportedby him.Reporter between two conflicting types.How far can the press be considered authoritativeAnalysis of press into component parts.Such reports, to thosewho have taken an interested and sympathetic part in theevents, must often bring depression and discouragement.

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Besant on, 302; Poeon publishers and, 310; versus artists,404.Thompson, all of whom have read the manuscript wholly or in part, and have at all times lent a listening ear as each new interest in the subject has developed.Japanese War killed theulousocorrespondent;believmswboyetconflict in the Balkans may be said to have buried him.Panoplist, The, its platform, 20.The offer was accepted and his lettersfrom Altona ran from March to August, 1807, and were followed by threefrom Sweden.Monday issue, for example, having one title and the Thursdayissue another.Singularly enough the newspaper press itself rarely writes of these subjects which are comparatively favorite ones with contributors to reviews.

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America and the countriesof Northern and Central Europe has been fostered by themutualexchange of advertisements.He finds not only that his work is rejected but that the veryspirit in which it is done does not win the sympathetic understanding he believes it merits.An important item of news comes in just asa paper is going to press and a hurried account is written but thestatementsmade can not be verified.In nine cases out often it is a question of no material consequence to the public, or to any individual member of it, whether the verdicts which they give are carelessly uttered,or are the result of mature and conscientious deliberation.Howells, William Dean, 103; on altering MSS.Agencies controlled by government.

Owing to the vastly increased range of modern weapons andextended sphere of military operations, on the one hand, and owing, onthe other, to the extreme severity of the censorship, the opportunities evenof the most enterprising correspondents are greatly restricted.Curiosities of Literature, I, pp.The war correspondent, it must be remembered, had in those daysno recognized status.It was easier to reset items from theeastern papers, when they arrived, than to gather facts andcompose original matter.Fictitious reprint of Punch cover in 1914.If the advertisement is not true,that in and of itself is a record of the low moral standards thatare tolerated butnot acknowledged by the press and by the public.

With the fervid eulogy of Dr.TheWoman Citizen, June 23, 1917.And seal the news and issue them.Napier, Brougham, Macaulay, and the Whigs.They ceasedonly when newspapers had obtained such a hold upon the community as made them no longer necessary.

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Confusion and perplexity must at every turnawait the historian compelled to depend in any degree upon thisclass of material.Weekly, December 21, 1916.The telegraph, the cable,the telephone, wireless telegraphy, leased wires, and pneumatictube mail service have greatly facilitated the reception of news, 41although the fact that news is transmitted by these means oftengives it a factitious importance.Appeal made to advertisers.The government does not own the press, but botheditors and owners have in the past yielded to its superiorpower.Edinburgh Review, April, 1835, 61:1843.The domestic political advertisement in its turn leads into theadvertisement that has its international aspects 26 or that maylead to international complications.

Another side of the social service carried on by the press isfound in its correspondence columns.The conscientious editor may regret that he is not reaching certain classes in society, but hemay himself find no adequateexplanation for it; he realizes that his editorials are not read,but he does not know whether their tone is too aggressive, or tooconciliatory, too laudatory, or too sarcastic.Parke Godwin, connected with the Evening Post from 1836 to 1881,states that he originated the real estate advertisements in that paper.Thanksgiving Sermons JustifyWar for Defense of American Liberty and Ideals.The plan has been talkedover with many army and naval officers, and in each case the general planof procedure has been heartily approved.Couper on journals of, 446.New directions of war correspondence.

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The first real beginnings of associations of newspapers formutual benefit in securing foreign news were made in Americaabout 1827.The historian uses the newspaper in his effort to reconstruct the life of the past and hemaytherefore find both the authoritative and the unauthoritativeparts of value to him; the authoritative parts are necessary ingiving a connected account of past events, while the unauthoritative parts may be of value in determining ideals and standards,in gauging collective ignorance or intelligence, and interpretingthe spirit of a time or of a locality.Joint War Committee of the British Red Cross and theOrder of St.But theelement of speculation does not enter into the conduct of thebusiness, the very nature of the business is in itself a guaranteeagainst monopoly, and no lobby is maintained to secure or toprevent the passage of legislation in its interests.Bungay has beenwith me in a fury this morning, at seeing a laudatory article upon one ofthe works of the odious firm over the way.It gives its business3 The Philadelphia North American states at the head of its editorialcolumn that it was founded in 1771, that it is the oldest daily newspaperin America, and that it is the descendant of the Weekly PennsylvaniaGazette, founded by Benjamin Franklin in 1728.Charleston Mercury, Rhodes on, 471.

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The neworder of things has taken war correspondence out of the category of thefine arts.Thisvolume was published by the Atlantic Monthly Press in 1918.This enormous and rapid increase in the activities connectedwith the press has been greatly facilitated by the extraordinarydevelopment of inventions of the age.But with the increase in the number of periodicals of all kinds,with the growth in size of each individual copy, with the enormous expansion in their circulation, and with the consequentdevelopment of the periodical as a business enterprise, there hasfollowed the upbuilding of intricate, complicated machinery thaton the one hand controls and regulates the output of the pressand on the other hand facilitates its further extension.Scott on newspapers of,Illinois Railroad Committee, 345.Figaro and a jest.The industrial and commercial advertising of the governmentduring the war assumed various forms.

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See also Boswell, James.Hemay find that unconsciously to himself he hasbeen the person interviewed rather than the one interviewing.The newspaper is intimately connected with all questions ofpublic health and its effective aid in promoting it is everywhererecognized.Is the Associated Press a Trust?Whether or notpolitical parties took their cue from the propagandists is immaterial, but it is certain that the presidential campaign of 1916saw an extraordinary development of political advertising andthe transference of interest to it from the editorial and frompolitical rallies.It was followed at onceby The Huntress that continued from December 2, 1836 to July 2, 1854.

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The word cartoon as at present used in America apparently is an amplification of caricature in the third sense as noted by de la Sizeranne.Keeping everlastingly at it brings success.This gives in full the circular letter issued bythe organizers.Recognized importance of advertisements.Our Johannesburg has more prosperity in it.Achievementhas not only silenced doubt, but ithas created enthusiasm for the professionalaspects of journalism.

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He shouldhave the sweet, angelic temper of a woman, and be as affableas if he were a politician canvassing for a vote; yet, at the sametime, be big and ugly enough to impress the conviction that itwould be highly unwise to take any liberties with him.Dangers feared from this.The influence of the editor and of theeditorial has apparently been undermined by two importantclasses of changes that have comewithin the past fifty years.Harvey was apparently not in Washington at the time.He has a longlist of the handicaps under which he suffers and he has enumerated many of them.But again, until warfare itself ceases to be,common ground there is none.

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Buthas the public an inherent right to demand the publicationof all or any news?But your London Johannesburg is quite anotherplace.The newspaper has the universal prerogative of selection; the public hasthe moral right to know whatever concerns the public welfare,but it has no moral or legal right to compel the press to be themedium through which it acquires this knowledge.Atlantic since our war began.If I desired to leave to remote posterity somememorial of existingBritish civilization, I would prefer, not our docks, not our railways,not our public buildings, not even the palace in which we now hold oursittings; I would prefer a file of The Times newspaper.Oneof the upper Palatinate tbo 19.Compare these accounts with the equipment in the Civil War.

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The Ulster County Gazette of January 4, 1800.Times may also change and the same papers maywithin a comparatively short period show an increase in the proportion of space given to gossip, scandal, and sport and a proportionate decrease in news concerning religion, science, literature, and art.But Catling has also failed to notice that in American schools of journalism the construction of the headline receives much attention from theprofessor of journalism.Beggars, newspapers for, 27.Francis McCullagh, New York Evening Post, January 11, 1913.He must be able to makehis attack so witty and laughable that even his victims will be unable not tosmile.But the extent to which thecartoon is used may thereby record the degree of freedom or ofcensorship of the press where it is found.

The first important source of information for the local reportercomes from the group made up of the court houses, the policecourts, hospitals, the morgue, the undertaker, places of amusement, hotel registers, and steamboat offices.That it is the sum total of these errors, greatly magnified andequally misunderstood, that has brought unwarrantable discredit on the press, especially the American press, seems clear.These essentials are, in a great measure, neutralized, so far as the work ofParliamentary Reporting is undertaken by the Press, by thepolitical bias which is inseparable from newspaper enterprise.Opposition of Military Officials.The American Civil War is said to have created acorps of clever correspondents who reduced reporting in thefield to something like a science.Henry Bate, created a baronet in 1813, is said to have been the firstjournalist to receive a title.

Affiches, used in Brussels during war,Afghan War, first, 407.The interview was published in the official governmentorgans and by the Wolff Bureau and it stands as onemore interesting illustration of the inability of even the German Emperorto square the circle.Problems of religious and of political press different.The illustration has its own distinct personality as has eachrepresentative of the press and this is expressed not so much byepithets and nicknames as in graphic form.Elegant BrideSimplythe most elegant way to get the informationyou need to make your wedding a dreamcome true.In the end, however, some one oftendoes know better, or the illustration itself may prove its ownundoing.

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Boston Public Library, and in the New York Public Library.New YorkTimes, November 14, 1916.See also Specialcorrespondence; War correspondent.The Good Housekeeping Magazine has for some years carried a similarguarantee.The puzzling alternative in regard to policies to be followed isnot the only one that confronts an editor.Vizetelly writes of the insertion of a spitefully worded advertisement in London morning papers of February 26, 1856, intended to injure the parliamentary prospects of Herbert Ingram.Park Street Papers, pp.

Stephane Dubost, letter to Marcel Complans, quoted in full in the NewYork Evening Post, November 21, 1908.Another limitation on the authoritativeness of the press is thatits own interest in itself seemsto begin and end with outstrippinga neighbor in the rapidity with which it gets news.All of these personal equationsthe historian must consider and weigh in the newspaper artistas well as in the writer.Government advertisingCHAPTER XIVTHE ILLUSTRATION AND THE GRAPHIC PRESSEarly use of illustration.It satisfieda real demand.

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But since they concern the form rather than the spirit, their use to the historian is comparatively slight.But thisultimately led to their undoing.Open Letter to AllInvestors in American Railway Securities in regard to the Newlands JointCongressional Committee.Cleveland letterGarfield and the Morey letterForged proclamation attributed to Lincoln.He accepts its authoritativeness without question andrecognizes that it is indispensable in writing a history of thestate.

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Technical works on journalism form a new but comparatively large class of works.Kung lay allo loin certaine 1090.Gibbonnever saw the Roman Army in action, and Taine was never received atthe court of Louis XV.In the multitude of interpreters there is confusion.The indifference of the editor to the business side of the newspaper isprobably best illustrated in the case of Henry Labouchere.The critical Reviewers, I believe, often review without reading the bookthrough; but lay hold of a topick, and write chiefly from their own minds.

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Leach writes of one block that with chipping, smudging, and otherartifices has done duty as a view of Port Arthur, the battle of Santiago, ascene in the West End of London, a railway accident, and massacres inAfrica.De Tocqueville on American journalists.In the eighteenth century inEngland, it was in form the political pamphlet or tract.Optimist and pessimist are both honorablegentlemen yet neither is nor can be the other.In news and in editorial, in specialcorrespondence and in advertisement it is the past to whichappeal ismade and it is the past that gives stability to the present.The New York Evening Post, March 27, 1915.

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Therest will come easy.Exchanges, newspaper, 11, 452.Some papers undoubtedly suppress the news, butin so doing they run great risks and in the end pay a heavy pricefor it.The press an organ or a forum.Thecrude beginnings of distribution go back more than a hundredyears.

Yeteven so the caricature becomes for the historian an unimpeachable record of a hard, brutal society of which it has been anoutgrowth.Services of the press to language.Zola in his address in favor of signature beforethe Institute of Journalists in London, September, 1893.But the press has always been of rainbowhues and the yellow press was in existence before the periodicalpress was established here.He believes that the newspaper man needs not only an instinctfor news, but such previous training as will enable him to sift hismaterial, to weigh evidence, and not to accept at its face valueevery statement made, deterred from doing so only by fear oflibel suits.

Troubles of the critics.No editor is compelled to publish all the news received or toexpress an opinion on any and every subject, or to take sides inany controversy, but if he chooses to do so, no condign punishment follows.Now, it is impossible for me toagree to this.He finds thatmany authors who later became famous began their careersthrough publication in periodicals.Workmen goabout without work.

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October 28, 1880, vol.An audience of 7, 500 persons.If an important speech by a greatstatesman was scheduled for a certain evening, the morningpapers were given the choice of a verbatim report, a full report,or a summary of a column in length; the verbatim and the fullreports were given in the first person, the summary report in thethird.It was received by the censor December 22, 1914, and delivered tohim May 3, 1915.See Newspaper, endowed.

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Montague, William Thomas Arnold,Journalist and Historian, pp.The historian must therefore examine the editorial through a succession of years in order to determine how far these criticisms are justified.The appeal for help andadvice is often made to the newspaper and the magazine throughfear of betrayal of confidence, if counsel is sought from localadvisers, and undoubtedly the press in such cases has renderedaid and comfort.The delight that the Elizabethans found in experimenting with the sonnetand other forms of verse, we obtain by inventing novel and catchy advertising phrases.This dedication expresses rarely well the intimate and cordial relationship between the editor and the community and the community reaching out through a large section of a great country, as it was exemplified in the work of this great editor.WITIWhat is the status of women in technologytoday?

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The interview is distrusted because of the frank avowal ofjournalists that the paramount idea of the interviewer should beto make an interesting story.Hemay have no knowledge of any language but his own.Thehistorian is rarely concerned with the names that fill thesecolumns, the inaccuracies that inevitably creep in do not vitiatehis use of them in his reconstruction of the past since this reconstruction must concern itself less with the individual thanwith the type.To answer these questions involves an analysis of the newspaper into its component parts, an inquiry into the source ofthe statements of each part, and the application to each of suchtests as will determine the authenticity and the authoritativenessof the various parts considered separately and collectively.The formal journalistic creed is occasionally found and it becomes a permanent feature of the paper.ArmyHeadquarters, the entire service of supplies, and the Army ofOccupation.

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TOP OF PAGEOther Cool Pages to Visit on this site.Through Life and Round the World, chap.Alaric Watts and Blackwood.Bench, whenLord Kenyon was Chief Justice.The Historical Novel, pp.Britannia Sympathizeswith Columbia.The Life of LordHoughton does not disclose why the notice did not appear, butother letters from the Queen of Holland indicate an oversensitiveness to the remissness of correspondents.

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Beginnings of parliamentary reporting.American, 252; Reid on, 255; Catlingpaper.Political newspapers represent organized parties with definite politics.Is it strange that this form of social satire has its complement in the illustrations that everywhere show the prevailing social and industrial unrest?Forbes himself says of it that he neither spared blamenor stinted praise.

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Fleet Street had agreat time.War, and there was great demand fornews of the war as well as for tidings from friends.Photographs illustrating the spoliation of places, and the distribution ofillustrated periodicals containing such pictures were forbidden in Antwerpby the proclamation of the German governor.Review, and you, is sufficiently notorious to make areview in the Edinburgh of any work of his one of the most delicate operations possible.Quiteincidentally and unconsciously they have narrated much of thehistory of the business, they have shown the extent of the business, the foreign and domestic markets from which and to whichgoods are shipped, the business methods employed, the spiritthat actuates it, and its relations to both employees and patrons.These have been suggestions of a variety of errors frequentlyfound in the illustrations of periodicals.

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Buck, Gertrude, on the critic, 305.Lord Actonand his Circle, pp.It was the custom of Cave andone or more friends to gain access to the House of Commons,secretly to take a few notes giving the substance of the arguments, and then to compare notes in a neighboring tavern.Alliance en Caricatures, 1891.Thedesire to attract attention gives it a prominence out of all proportion to its real value as news.New York Evening Post, March 22, 1918.

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Davies gives an admirable discussion of the press and romanticismin French Romanticism and the Press.Business tact mustbe recognized.The editorial page is a survival.Henry FothergillChorley: Autobiography, Memoir, and Letters.At its best itanalyzes and points out the significance of important news.France the periodical press of thecountry is not allowed to guide public opinion.

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You can never get circulation for the paper whose editorial policy isrun fromthe business office.Correspondence of Macvey Napier, pp.Even the introduction of Americanmethods of advertising into England, difficult as it was in thebeginning, has probably done much to cement the friendshipbetween the two countries.The illustration shows the changes in fashions not only inclothing and in architecture, but in the accessories of life.ButDelane had been anticipated on the continent by more than two centuries.

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Each man of the staff is a specialist in some line portrait,society, yachting, naval, military, sport, or humor.The contemporaneous review,even the best, must fail to note the elements of a book that mayhave the greatest value for the historian.Other advertisements gave forms of bonds, illustrated the blanks to be filledout in subscribing to the loan, discussed the important points tobe kept in mind in making investments, and gave a mass ofexpert advice on securities, investments, and business methodsand principles never before so readily available to the generalpublic.In wars of aggression,like the recent war, where the censorship rules are most rigorous,war correspondence becomes active propaganda for the aggressor, 102 or, on the other side, sympathetic descriptions of theharrowing results of aggression.Thepleasure that I used to feel in the rapidity and dexterity of itsexercise has never faded out of my breast.

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See Houghton, Lord.The more successful he is as an editor the more his individuality is merged in that of the newspaper with which he is connected.Panizzi, Antonio, letter to, 414.Stokes, Iconography of Manhattan Island, II, 419.These trivial things I mention as an assurance to you that Inever have forgotten the fascination of that old pursuit.It has been a habit everywhere to affect a critical attitudetowards the press from the timeof Ben Jonson to the presentday.He draws his conclusion from what may be an exceptional case.

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In 1916, theIllinois Railroad Committee advertised the comparative risksfrom railway trains incurred by motor vehicles, horses, andteams, and pedestrians in crossing railway tracks; gave thepercentage of each class that looked neither way, both ways, orone way only; and showed which should stop and why.The tendency to omniscience often displayed by the press makes it unduly censorious of persons holding responsible public positions and often the most unreliableof sources for estimating justly the work of prominent leaders.International controversies from foreign correspondence.New York Evening Post, May 11, 1917.Kelb, Syria, and named it Boyap Junction.Life of Warren Hastings.

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General limitations of reporting.Spielmann in his History of Punch barely alludes tothe subject.Employers shower wealth upon efficientemployees.Errors due to carelessness.Hospitality was a virtue on a Southern plantation, as well asin ancient Greece, and it was rewarded by the guests who broughtnews from distant parts.

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The military press censorship, originally established for the plausiblepurpose of guarding against the possibility of information, likely to proveof value to the enemy, being conveyed to their knowledge through thecolumns of the public press, was a weapon that a general in command ofan army in the field, whether Oriental or European, did not fail to make useof against adverse criticism.The country editor is changing as well as his city brother.See alsoForgery; Hoax.But then they come into our head.Means of gratifying it in Greece.Italy, Germanie, Hungarie, Spaine and France.The proposed rejection by an important periodical as early as1699 of reviews that through their tediousness might interferewith the sale of books opened but did not close a question thatstill will not down.

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New York Times, December 3, 1916.Bygones Worth Remembering, II, 54.Wyke sletter to, quoted, 453.But specializationhas as yet been but imperfectly developed in other fields and inthese, many errors almost unavoidably arise.Chancellor, he was refused all information.It was due to the haste of a student who, in heating alcohol for avery simple experiment, had not followed instructions.

Tyranny of the reviewMacaulay on Croker.Kinglake,The Invasion of the Crimea, IV, chap.Information conveyed through advertisements.For the historian is concerned not simply with the accountsof material events, he is equally interested in the interpretationof the spirit of a time or locality.The uncensored letters of the Crusaders gave the Western Europeof that day its first real knowledge of the Orient, and the byproducts of the correspondence, in the descriptions of the countryand of the life of that time, have had a more permanent valuethan have the descriptions of assaults and sieges.

Underhill considers that the first newspaper advertisement in Englandappeared in the Impartial Intelligencer in 1648.Napier, History of the War in the Peninsula, II, 366.Congress has passed unobserved and unnoticed.Two collections are described, pp.McClure, was in the air about 1884,but that has been protean in form and that has had numerouskith and kin.

France had undermined the authority of the press there,and tended to the destruction of parties; but at the same time,said he, it had to be recognized that much of the inspiriting ardorof the political battle sprang from that same practice.The notinfrequent expulsion of foreign correspondents seems to havebeen due not to false statements but to truthful letters when thetruth has been embarrassing to the government concerned.Policy of the Atheneum.Roman Catholics, relief of, 338.Maurice was ever ready to be the champion of a cause he thoughthad been misrepresented even if he did not agree with it himself.

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Club, AtlanticMonthly, January, 1921, 127: 140.York Eveningoutfit now considered indispensable demands highly trainedofficers to handle it and these are unwillingly detailed for sucha purpose in a time of life and death struggle.Lighthouse, 47:Lille, University of, courses in journalism at, 458, 459.He stillhelps to keep his party together; but nowadays it is doubtfulwhether the editorial columns of the daily press make manypolitical converts.Federalist atmosphere as Richmond and in competition with awell established and popular press.Irwin on, 53; violationof censorship by papers of, 133; controversy with Tribune, 136.Historian must examine sources of news.

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Bohemian Days in Fleet Street, pp.It was the reactionary Tory Xenophon who had retired frompublic life, civil, or military, before instituting the alliance, sinceso fruitful, of the writer with the fighter.Carl Schurz, Reminicences, II, 133, et seq.Of provincial journals there are only few irregular fragments.Mathews, the actor, who in1853 wrote to the Morning Post that, after admitting its representative as usual, he had met with what he deserved in consequence.

Russellwas so socially gifted that he evoked conversation.The conviction that reliance couldbe placed on the public to decide in favor of the right side, whenonce acquainted with the facts, had probably never before beenso much in evidence as it was at that time.Their numbers should be restricted as much as possible.Variation of judgment as to what is importantFluctuating interests of public.But in its general relation to education, the press is betweenScylla and Charybdis.Rainy Days in a Library, pp.But it does not follow that all questions concerning his workor his qualifications for it will cease to be discussed.

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Through modern invention and through newscollecting agencies, the whole world has been brought to thesanctum, and the time and energy of the office staff thus releasedhas been turned in the direction of perfecting the various parts ofthe paper.The personal birthday ofMr.Interview prolific source of error.Criticism and theater managersThe courts and criticismAn old trouble.Special libraries and source material.

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Pen said,fruot coelum, to tell the truth.There will not be an unofficial, full, and independent account ofany action fought in the war.Pope, Alexander, 104; quoted, 176.To the extent that ithas brought together students and instructors actuated by acommon desire to standardize and then to raise the ordinarystandards of journalism, it has made already a contribution to theauthoritativeness of the press.As part ofits community service, it gives the public free of cost the use oflegal and medical consultation bureaus and also bureaus formatters concerning chemistry, agriculture, and stock raising; andit maintains a show room for the display of objects relating tothese branches.Who could have thetime, the patience and intelligence?Reign ofTerror under which no one suspected of sympathy with Liberal ideas wassafe.

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News Letters, with which hewas compelled to deal.Different origins of the humorous column have been noted.Yet the question can not be summarily dismissed.Albert Shaw has shown the failure of foreign cartoonists, even friendly ones, to have a correct understanding ofRoosevelt as depicted either by his admirers or by unfriendlycritics; they give at best but a nondescript creation.See also Cave, Edward.More than one newspaper discovered that reputable advertisers were repelled by patent medicine advertisements and that they placedtheir advertising in newspapers that did not carry them.

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The railroadscheat us and kill us.It reports the meetings of boardsof education and publishes the annual reports of school superintendents and principals.Matthew Arnold on the American press.Reisner gives many detailed classes of advertisements rejectedby the North American.Zola, Emile, on signature, 67, 71, 317;rebuked, 267.Caravans from India andargosies from Venice, the streets of Cairo and of Constantinople,and tales from the Arabian Nights advertise modern products.

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Should an editor write.From the Hagerhe 28 oflaw 1621.He cares for the outcome of nothing.Bulwer gives all the arguments used for anonymity and, byrefuting them all, favors signature.The second process involves the interpretationof the life and interests of a community, of a nation, of an age,as these are unconsciously revealed through the columns andpages of periodical literature.

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The tug of war between the Government and The Timesduring the period of the Crimean War ended for the time beingin favor of the press.Criticisms of government suppressed.University of Iowa Extension Bulletin, No.If the advertisement is true,the facts it states are of value.Magazine during the editorship of both Griswold and Poe.Powell, as reported in the New York Evening Post, January 28, 1916.The Joliet, Illinois, Phoenix printed the Phoenixfor six other towns; at least three pages were alike, the rest of the papergave the distinctive local news of each place.

Delane and, 257;Collegiate Alumnae, Association of,forehanded report of anniversarymeeting of, 150.All weddingsare described as pretty, all brides are beautiful, all bridegroomsare successful, both are always popular in the community, thewedding repast is sumptuous or elegant, and the presents received are numerous and valuable.These letters, he states, were copied by theItalian papers and their contents approved by the army.It has been well shown that while the essential principles ofcaricature were as well understood in the eighteenth as in thenineteenth century and the means used were the same, the results were radically different.Increase in influence of the press.Emblems used by the press.

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Times, The, motto of, 43.Panmure, Lord, his letters to Raglan,201.The papers of the colonial period wereof excellent quality, homely in color, but strong and lasting, somethat have seen little usage being as bright and crisp as on the dayof issue.The demand could be met only by inventing what they could byno possibility have witnessed.The press and social welfare are intimately associated.Verne, Jules, quoted, 468.Magazine, 1742, 12: 676.

Aterday I was reportedthat Beuten belooging to themillions and a halfe of Suldanes out of the trealurie wich Marquis war burarby the Polanders, and lagetonuorp cokcathem to pay their Souldsers, and he harh delivered tohondred by the Emperors torces, wbether it be ro or nor, by the nextthouſand Suldanesto his generall of the Seas, who with 70.CHAPTER VIIITHE SPECIAL CORRESPONDENTMany forms of special correspondence.American Civil War and,Doesticks, 61.Reeve, Henry, Delaneand, 280.Catling and the press.Trent, The Authority of Criticism and Other Essays.There had neverbeen a newspaper started upon the principles of free and independent literarycriticism.

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Subordinate persons were employed to note down the events of the day and news of the city for the absent men of quality; and Caesar as early as his first consulship took fitting measures for the immediate publication of an extract of the transactions of the senate.Cassagnac, Paul de, 284.If a death occurs under suspicious circumstances, thepublic demands all the news, yet to point to any individual ashaving been criminally concerned in it is to invite an actionagainst the press so reporting the crime.See also Distribution of news.New YorkEvening Post, August 15, 1916.

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This is in sharp contrast to the changes that havecome in other parts of the newspaper.In his hands correspondence from the field reallybecame a power before which generals began to quail.Weekly well indicates the reciprocal feeling of Americatowards England.Itmay run the gamutof human emotions and cover a wide range of intellectual achievement.It was Edward Cave who introduced the idea of circulating thereports ofwhat was done in Parliament.

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Life in 1901 shows amermaid as a collector of water rents, the submarine is an octopus, thedevil tortures thebeef trust, while later the trusts are represented as a dragonabout to devour liberty.French in 1870 were made to serve for thewar of 1914; signatures were erased; names of places were exchanged; aFrench attack was transformed into a retreat.Newspapers have the privilegeof selection as do private individuals in private conversation andneed not be charged with wilfully suppressing news if varioussubjects honestly seem to them inconsequential.XVEarly dependence of press on authors.It is complicated bythe varying and even contradictory standards of criticism thathave prevailed in different countries at different times, andeven in the same country at the same time.

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Raymond and the New York Times for ThirtyYears, pp.No agreement concerning functions of criticism.Babel a history of theworld.Opinion publique where he firstsigned his name, July 25, 1850, and thereafter many times in each number.The mass of readers lose interest in a prolonged controversyand the press holds to the principle of printing as news only whatinterests a definite proportion of readers.Leeds Intelligencer, 97, 251.

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The contemporary London press for the most part failed to understandthe question at issue in the American Civil War and was equally falliblein its criticism of current events connected with it and in its prophecies asto its outcome.Avoidwasting your time on trivial activities.This attitude of infallibility and omniscience has almost inevitably been modified by the changes that have affected the paperas a whole.Journal amusant, Le, 382.Questions that at the time werebelieved to have only a local import afterwards proved to be ofof the trouble.The press in reconstructing social lifeThe country press.Technical journalsSuggested explanations.

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The function of the editorial differs much indifferent countries, 7much at different times, 78 and much in different sections of the same country, 79 while the importance of theeditorial and of other parts of the newspaper have varied at different times.Frankfurter Zeitung,the Berliner Tageblatt, Vorwärts and in general by liberal,radical, and socialist papers.Baron von Bissing,240.They are journalism; but in themjournalism is extending itself towards, is even becoming, literaure.His picture has been drawnby one of the greatest of them all.This may be explained by the conditions under which the reports are written out.And this is avery great improvement of exceedingly late date.

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Responsibility of local governments.Generalizations concerning it impossible.He also notes that two advertising offices were started in 1611 bySir Arthur Gorges and by Sir Walter Cope.With the development of advertising in the directions nowopening up, the chasm between the advertising pages and theeditorial columns must be bridged and the newspaper acquire anew sense of unity and harmony it has heretofore entirely lacked.This system was in use when I commenced in the sixties.TheNewspaper and its Readers.

The historian himself is changing his method of work in writing of war and he isconcerned with many other aspects of it besides the chronologicalnarrative of events.Townsend was one of the first of American war correspondentsto describe not only the operations of the army but the country itself andits inhabitants.See also Religious press;Vatican.Hill, Impressionsof the Kaiser, pp.February 4, 1918.

NTSCONTEACRenaudot and the Gazette de France.Fear of the advertiser.Lives of editors, correspondents and cartoonists as a rule suffer from the temptation of their authors to make excursions into contemporaneous politics and to explain the criticisms directed against the subjects of the biography.It is always easy for the critics of the pressto make the worse appear the better reason and vice versa.New York Evening Post, June 30, 1913.Ifthey are in able and honest hands all goes well; if they are inweak and dishonest hands all is anarchy and mischief.French,Italian, Spanish, German, Greek, Hebrew, Persian, Chinese,Esquimo, and Cree, have all appeared in American papers.

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His own pride in his achievements.The correspondent in time of peace.Liotard drew upon himself the disapproval of his brotherartists for painting La Belle Chocolatière at the behest of a greatindustrial house, but the original hangs in the Dresden gallery.European war had been put into welldirected publicity and advertising to teach the people of the world that theywere brother citizens of the world, instead of patriotic and partisan Germans,Frenchmen, English, or Turks, the war would never have come.American Notes for General Circulation, by Charles Dickens.

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The case of Life us.But they are antedated by a collection of eighteen newspapers printed in English at Amsterdam, including one at theHague, running in time from December 2, 1620, to September 18, 1621.But far more troublesome to the historian than questions ofauthenticity, fabrication, identification of anonymous articles, orcorrect attribution of signed articles must be that of the realauthorship of newspaper articles signed by noted names butwritten by persons whose names do not appear.It seems, however, to have been Edward Cave who, about 1725,began the exchange of news between the country newspapers andthe London press, selling the country news for a guinea a week.See also Lettersto the editor.New interests demand new channels of expression.

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Coburn, Henry, on the Literary Gazette,292.Smith and Son and the American News Company.Newspapers now vie with each other in showing their efforts made forhonest advertising.Present theory of parliamentary reporting.For the recent comparatively low status of the war correspondenthe seems himself to have been in large part responsible.

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TheTimes made the success of themost successful of modern English59 CollectedWorks of WilliamHia Hazlitt, I, 366.Does it suppress the news that the public oughtto have, does it suppress it knowingly, and through fear ofdiminishing its revenues?The War Office, as a special branch of the government, hasshown a growing displeasure at the presence of war correspondents with the army.American newspaper,but in the newspaper of every country and of every time.Keats 34 and Leigh Hunt as scathinglyas the Edinburgh had condemned another school of poets.

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Social status of reporters.Thesedisputes have sometimes been decided by courts of law, butArcher deems them incompetent to render judgment on suchtechnical questions.Occasional correspondence, 11; namemust accompany, 79; of travelers inEurope, 190.Weekly, April 1, 1911.Crystal Palace at Sydenham,ragged schools, provident institutions for the trades and professions connected with journalism, and reforms necessary forIreland.And again, as wars differamong themselves, so do war correspondents differ, and sotherefore does war correspondence differ.It is as much the policy of Society to protect thereputations of its members as to protect their lives, their persons,and their properties.

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Francis,Notes by the Way, pp.See also South Africa.New York Evening Post, August 16, 1919.Descriptions of scenery and of places pall amid the tragedies and thehavoc wrought by war.Its first number appearedJanuary 1, 1849.But the suppressed interviewmay return to bring discredit to the person interviewed as well asconfusion to the historian.Even the town crier is continued in remote or backward districts.

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The important questions concerning the editor center, forthe historian, around his reputed control by the proprietor,the influence exerted over him by governments on the one handand on the other hand the influence he exerts over governments,and the decline in influence of the editorial while at the same timeit has improved in accuracy and definiteness of statement, ingood temper, in grasp of subject and breadth of treatment, andin its general authoritativeness.They seem to have been ignorant of such engaging Introductions, as we hear it strongly reported; and of that ingenious,but threadbare, Excuse for a downright Lie, it wants confirmation.This the artist introduced into the picture and representedthe Bishop shown as wearing his mitre on his head.But backof all criticism lies the critic and he too changes, as also does theopinion of the public towards him.Gazette by a certain day, for otherwise Parliament would not recognizethem.An examination of editorials covering a91S.Havas Agency in whose38 New York Evening Post, October 7, 1914.

This system has had in it so many elements of confusion that in1874 the House of Commons instituted an inquiry in regard toparliamentary reporting in foreign countries and in the colonies.Emperor bedre, ancill chis prekor,goe oux of priſon, whowas forcedro deliver chekey as husMore.Mikado, silver bowl presented by, 149.Arbroath, 7; in Massachusettskilled, 203.Relation between book reviews and publishers.Carteret who has shown the farreaching influence of Bismarck for good and for evil as shownin the caricatures of all nationalities.Even editors, when traveling abroad, haveseldom written of the press in the countries visited.

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The newspaper is parent, school, college, pulpit, theatre, example,councelor, all in one.Take theNasty Punch Away.The attitude of artists towards illustrating for the press hasalso changed.He substantiates his claim that it is a forum by longclassified lists of both Englishmen and foreigners distinguished inall fields who have written for it on different and opposing sides.Turks by the war correspondents.Federal government the authority for information.

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Weekly, February 4, 1922; New York Evening Post,May 1, 1922.But it canat least be assumed that the guarantee of the government reduces to an irreducible minimum the element of errancy in thoseparts of the newspaper for which it is responsible.To understand the valueof the press as historical material it is necessary to know therecords the press gives of itself; the legislation that has modifiedit and the degree to which in some countries it has controlled it;the lives of those who have so largely made it what it is.Jekyll and Advertising Mr.Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIX, 577.Weekly, June 13, 1857.

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The New York Nation in 1880 published an interesting series of ninearticles on the characteristics of English journals at that time.But thedenominational press is becoming each year a less importantfactor in the field of the historian.Precautions and preparation of Associated Press.Lewes on dramatic criticism.Independent reportscorrect each other.In 1732, after the July prorogation of Parliament, he printed the proceedings and debates, with the initialand final letters of the names of the several speakers.Weekly, during the presidential campaign of 1920, contained acartoon, based on the Immaculate Conception, that gave great offense notonly to the Roman Catholics but to all who deprecated the use of religioussubjects in a political campaign.

Bennett on qualifications of correspondents.Although everyeffort was made to locate the agent, it was apparently impossible to do so.The country press in Republican territory has been, from the timeof the Civil War, tied fast to the party machine by the county printingcontracts and by cessions of county postmasterships to the editor.Many of these advertisements have represented not only20 The first instance noted was the advertisement of oleomargarine; it wasused to urge the repealing of an objectionable law and the passage of abetter one.Morning Chronicle to which the jesting friend was attached.In England in the first third of the nineteenth century the legislative restrictions placed on the press a century before gave riseto radical newspapers that protested against these restrictions.Maxwell on, in Boer War, 225.

History of College Journalism, lists 224 collegejournals in 1882.Difficulties put in way of interviewers.The different hours at which papers go to press often explainsthe absence of news of an important event in one paper whileanother paper may give it half a column.New York Tribune, July 23, 1916.There has always been a suspicion thatpublishers look with kindly eye on all periodicals giving favorable notices of their publications, 14 and the suspicion becomescertainty in the case of publishers who are rivals.It is an interesting study to note the attitude of both Punch and Lifetowards the Kaiser before, during, and since the war.

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Growth of business management.These facts must betaken into consideration by the historian and must put him onhis guard against a too implicit reliance on the press when heturns to it for facts and discussions of industrial situations, especially those that affect the newspaper industry.But in still greater measure it is undoubtedly true that thepublic is responsible for the meshes in which the war correspondent has becomeentangled.Such a service extended to severalhundred subscribers has more than once been in the hands of apowerful editor.Since negative results are often quite as significant as are positive ones,it is of interest to note that these letters from abroad rarely, if ever, concernthe press of foreign countries.Johnson and George III.Truth itself becomessuspicious by being put into that polluted vehicle.

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Thayer dates from 1892 the beginning of the refusal of patentmedicine advertisements by the Curtis Publishing Company.Editorial in The Dry GoodsEconomist, November 28, 1914, republished in New York Tribune, December3, 1914.The editor of the old schoolwas born, not made, and, like the doctor and the lawyer, hebelieved that a person could learn the secrets of the professiononly in a newspaper office.Much of the correspondence now relates to the conditions andthe questions growing out of the war rather than to war itself.Its chief interest for him lies in the existenceof the syndicate itself as a means of purveying somewhat harmless information to an extraordinarily large number of persons.Lord Salisbury on the special correspondent.Countrie, Cod cumeit all to the heft.

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Other complications may arise as when editorials are writtenby persons at a distance who are not known to be connected withthe papers for which they write.The mutual relations of Poe and Griswold arestill under discussion and the pros and cons of the controversywell illustrate how far that period was from a genuine theory ofcriticism.Women in Business: Cyberspace Field of Dreamsis a new site for women in business,with all kinds of links and resources.No more famous interviewhas ever been reported than the one Dr.He thought that the business of a dailynewspaper was to give news; that a book was a form of news; that a noticeof it should give the views of the author as well as those of his reviewer.Boynton, Journalism and Literature, pp.

Personal criticismmay be written of the actors in the play, rather than of theiracting, still less of the dramaas acted.CHAPTER XIIITHE ADVERTISEMENTBeginnings of advertising.Whitlock, Belgium,I, 247.The resulting report brought together much valuable informationand showed that the prevailing method was for reporting to be thework of private enterprise.The Company in Garniiton.

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Bolton, The Private Soldier underWashington, pp.Reporters not alone responsible for unreliable reports.England, and said in the House of Commons in 1822 that if theGovernment wished to give publicity to its advertisements, itought to send them to the papers having the largest circulation,but it did not send a single one to The Times, although it had agreater circulation than any other two papers in England.Numberless illustrations of this point could be given.The Nineteenth Century, No.Yonder journal has an agent at this minute, giving bribesat Madrid; and another inspecting the price of potatoes in CoventGarden.

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Editors of the new school.Augustin Filon gives an interesting account of political caricature, particularly of the exchange of caricatures between the Whigs and the Toriesat the time of the Revolution of 1688.Improvements in business management of the press.Yet the problem of what should be the mutual relations between owner and editor and the complaint that each interfereswith the other are probably as old as the periodical press itself.The editor may be doomed, but his problems still persist andwill not down.Thestudent of history may accept at its face value this permanentelement in the press and be assured that in so doing he has notbeen led into avoidable inaccuracies of statement.The illustrationcertainly often guides rather than merely reflects public opinionand it does it through the power of interpretation that gives it aprophetic character.

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The advertisement therefore serves the historian in every partof his effort to reconstruct the past.Lord Palmerston and the QueenThe historian and criticism.The following day theTribune stated that it regretted to learn that this photograph was a misrepresentation; that it had been printed in the Tribune nearly four yearspreviously, and that it represented a street scene in Petrograd during the war.Everything, however trifling, was considered worth printing,and the newspaper finally became, what it is now, a collection ofthe gossip, not only of the whole world, but of its own locality.Long advertisements have been used to acquaint the publicwith the absolute acquittal by the courts of persons who hadbeen wrongly accused.Rachel Sherman Thorndike, Letters ofFebruary, 1863, pp.Newspaper advertisements of itself.

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Parliamcot, whebegurineto framehis Oracia0, his ſpeech beganne co foile him, sod!Limitations of the cartoon.Writings of Jefferson, ed.Are oddities only to be hunted?This patronage has beenspecially lucrative in the advertising of the Intercolonial Railway, of the Departments of Agriculture and of Immigration, andin the printing of official notices.Unfailing good humor nowcharacterize them,even when the letters are most virulent in their attacks on the paper wherethey are printed.These Many Years,pp.

New York Tribune, July 18, 1921.The suggestion of Sir Charles arose out of a proposal to pass alaw in Hanover regulating the press; the Government, whileanxious to give all due liberty to the press, wished to control itsexcesses.The press hasalso given wide publicity to the often conflicting interests of business manager andof editor.The advertisement has already invaded the editorial page and headsthe editorial columns.Permanent sources of information.How that speech could be written by him?In time of peace, it is equally prone to scent evil where no evilexists and in some cases it has relentlessly persecuted innocentpersons and driven them into exile.

Activities of a single newspaper.Gillray, tremendous as hewas, could become the valued ally of a Pitt and theparticular joy and encouragement of a nation in its struggle.Brinckmeyer, Hugo Stinnes, pp.Elements contributing to personality.French, Report of Sagamore Sociological Conference, 1912.New York Tribune, November 15, 1916.To the degree that it showsopposite characteristics, it fails, as does the individual, to maintain its business standing.

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American papers with the actual course of eventswould be an amusing though profitless occupation.The custom apparently originatedin America at the time of the Civil War and grew out of the difficulty inprinting newspapers since so many journeymen had enlisted.Some of these hindrances and trials have ultimately clearedthe air and thus proved beneficial.Granting freedom of thepress to a previously shackled press would seem to hold out littlehope for improving the work of careless reporters.The Roman Gazetters aredefective in several material Ornaments of Style.Other advertisements record adverse conditions.This change ismanifest in the wider range of subjects chosen for editorial comment, in the greater breadth of treatment, and in the improvement in the method of treatment.

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Advertisement integral part of the press.Promptu and infrallame on thenvdeliver impromptu and infallible pronouncements onevery subject underheaven, for the leader writer must know something of everything, or atleast successfully assume a knowledge if he have it not.The conventional government likes secrecy and undoubtedly the war correspondent addsto its difficulties and embarrassment in times when secrecy seemsabsolutely necessary.Ridgway Branch, Philadelphia, Dr.Glynn is a rebuke to the President.Family in the Interior of America, I, 284.That the correspondents of the Associated Press commiterrors of judgment the Association itself is the first to recognize.

The versionof Macaulay is given in his Collected Speeches, Preface, pp.Limitation of all formsof illustration.Of this situation the newspapers themselves are quick to takeadvantage.But the Craftsmanbecame the organ of those opposed to Walpole and the Ministryand it thus made its influence felt although itwas in no sense theinfluence of an independent press.Gaskell Haunts Homes and Stories,pp.

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In turnthey have created distinctive national characters like John Bulland Uncle Sam, they have symbolized political parties by thedonkey, the elephant, and the moose, or one wing of a politicalparty by the tiger.If the place of the war correspondent seems somewhat less102 Sven Hedin, With the German Armies in the West.Why, allmy life I have fought for it.Athenaeum and in the Saturday Review.Is it one ofhis prerogatives to change a manuscript that has been accepted for publication?In America, Frederick Palmer represented the Associated Press andshared thenews with all news associations in America.But other possible limitationsmust be recognized.

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The questions of regulation of the press, all forms of censorship of the press, freedom of the press, libel laws, press bureaus, press publicity, and press propaganda suggest conditions where the press is limited by an authority outside of itself.The most obvious elements that disclose the personality of anewspaper are its external features.The Paper that Developed Airmanship.He has often evaded regulations throughthe use of private couriers and boats.Right of the public to know the business of theThree general systemsof reporting.Just because a great sum is invested, it can not be imperiled by allowingunscrupulous men to make use of the newspaper property; forthat way ruin lies, in the end.Personal journalism thus often results in magnifying the infinitesimal and in minimizing the importance of what is truly great.

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Press as an influence on Imperial and neutral sentiment.Histoire de la presseen France, I, Preface and pp.Carteret in 1885 in Les Mæurs et la caricature en France gave anextended bibliography and history of journals of caricature, pp.His methodsturn out to be a trifle shady.Early magazines show initial and marginal decorations of dragons, seaserpents, griffins, and various grotesque animals.The suburban newspaper is often disclosed by its omission ofmany subjects that are discussed in full by the neighboring metropolitan dailies and presumably read by the entire community.The columns of the periodical press also carry other guarantees.

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Elmer Davis, History of the New York Times, pp.Does this studyof the press show how far it can be used to reconstruct the past,does it show what are its own limitations in such reconstruction,can the sources of errancy be isolated, and can principles beconditions that justify his use of the press as historical material?No one is so severea censor of the failings of the Church as is the Church itself.In its campaigns for honest advertising and inweeding out a large part of the objectionable advertising previously carried, the press has raised the whole standard of advertising.Blennerhassett, Sir Roland on NapoleonIII as a correspondent, 188.What is written aboutme has nothing to do with me, myme.

Printing House Square period was coming to an end when,in 1875, his Paris correspondent, Blowitz, sent him news of the Prussian plan for reopening the war against France.It must be remembered, however, that poor paper andrough printing often frustrate the plans of both artist and editorand complicate the result for the historian, and that it is oftendifficult for the artist to unite historical accuracy with artisticexpression and produce a sketch with the speed required.The historian in his use of the cartoon must therefore understand the conditions under which it has been produced.But the inevitable result of such a measure wouldseem to an onlooker to be the transference of all responsibilityfor the authoritativeness of the press reports from the pressitself to the Privy Council and thereby to reduce the press toa condition of nonage.Yesterday the Cologne Gazette, the chiefGerman paper, was seized, because it contained an advertisement to theeffect that the dinner would still take place.

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In spite of all precautions, untruthsare unintentionally given circulation from time to time.Conditions arebeing so altered that it may be said, I fear, to have ceased to be the fineart into which zeal, energy and contrivance elevated it for a brief term.Opposition of War Office.The Sherman Letters, ed.Journalism of undeveloped groups.History is a safer field than prophecy and Jerdancould not have anticipated the remarkable development that hascome in newspaper offices in the collection of this material.Variations between headlines and reports.

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Lamartine, 470; quoted, 468.Appeal to the imagination.New York Tribune, November 14, 1918; New York Times, March 17,1919.Tripoli is aland of infinite promise and in the course of timecan produceenough wheat to feed half the world.America by the American News Company.But a history of four dimensions demands aninfinite variety of sources, and the connection of the press with avast range of human interests places it in the forefront amongthe sources that claim the attention of the historian.More or less unreliability has in times past been attached to thework of the official reporter, but it has been an unreliability forwhich the reporter himself can not be held strictly accountable.

George Borrow on foreign correspondents.Sessions House at the OldBailey if there was an interesting trial, nay, perhaps obtainedadmission to the gallery ofWhitehall, and noticed how the Kingand Duke looked.The American press plumed itself, when the Livingston relief expedition was sent out by theNew York Herald, in setting an example to the London press,since soon after this the Daily Telegraph sent out George Smith,the keeper of the British Museum, to search for Assyrian antiquities to supplement and explain those already in the Museum.If he but succeed in influencing opinion for the present, he must be content to be forgotten in the future.Fifty Years a Journalist, pp.

Duke of Wellington has received a letter signed VincentDowling.The illustration serves the investigator in disclosing the conditions of tenement house lifewhere piecework is done, in showingthe peculiar features of casual occupations, like those of berrypicking and the canning industries, in making known the effectsof overwork, of child labor, and of occupationaldiseases.It seems to me that themischief of our newspapers mainly arises from the virulent language whichmen use while writing anonymously, and that, as far as example goes, thisis better reproved by temperate writings which are also anonymous.Unquestionably it does, and itmay be added, equally unquestionably, it ought to suppress muchmore than it does.Charles Selden,sends to his newspaper a story told him by an American army officer recentlyback from Italy.

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American Notes, Dickensmisrepresentedin review of, 282.American, The, Lowell, Mass.Scripps newspaper, Irwin on, 53.Correspondent often victim of conditions.Broadley, Napoleon in Caricature, 2 vols.They concerninsurance and safe deposit companies; fireproof buildings, vaults,cabinet safes, and floorings; metallic doors and interiors; automatic sprinklers; bonds covering burned securities; office rentalswith immediate possession; offers of free rooms for limitedperiods; removal notices; night and day service for the furnishingof offices of those burned out; new addresses of former tenantsasked; club privileges extended to the members of a club burnedout, and library privileges offered those whose professionallibraries have been destroyed.

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Almanac and the use of averageintelligence.Bussey relates that many years ago the proprietor of a Brightontheater did a good printing business in addition, and if a theatrical company visited Brighton and did not order its bills andposters from him, their performances were not likely to befavorably criticized.The illustration is a most prolific source of error, but manyof the minor errors, like those made by the local reporter, areamusing in themselves, and do not seriously militate againsttheir general reliability.The wishes of both circles were probably metwhen anindependent school of journalism was opened in London in 1921under the patronage of an impressive list of titled journalists andthe personal directorship of Max Pemberton.The illustration is everywhere therefore a parallel or a complementary medium of expression, working in the same fields, undermuch the same handicaps, having practically the same ends inview as the printed or the spoken word.Landon emphasizes the importance of setting up a very high standardfor those to whomlicenses were in future to be issued and gives a seriesof important suggestions covering the future status of the war correspondent that had grown out of his experiences as a war correspondent in SouthAfrica.

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United Press, 45, 80; achievements of,121.In political cartoonsespecially, much is tolerated and even welcomed that wouldprobably not be permitted in the text.These Scholars are to be free fromtuition and college fees, on condition that when required by the Facultythey shall perform such disciplinary duties as may be assigned them in aprinting office, or in other positions in the line of their profession, for a timeequal to one hour in each working day.It was signed with the name of a very prominentmember of the Administration and it was at once quoted in a textbook with thecomment that if so very busy a man as the writer was known to be couldtake the time to write this article all persons ought to give the movementtheir support.Voltaire was betrayed by it into a declaration, that theeloquence of ancient Greece and Rome was revived in theBritish senate, and a speech of the late earl of Chatham whenMr.

Business Opportunities advertisements in The New YorkTimes worth consideration.But exceptions even at an early time were found.Copyright, benefits historian, 77.Advertisements for recruits in America seemed to be less successful, andin at least one town the advertisements were torn down.The Journal of Commerce.The controversy must also illustrate of how comparatively little service to the historian is, in and of itself, theliterary criticism of the periodical literature of that day.The Russian peasants all love the Czar andthe Czar is constantly working for the welfare of the peasants.

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This wasspecially urged in view of the caricatures of the Kaiser, the Crown Prince,and alleged German militarism and the special inducement was held out thatthe blocks would be supplied free of expense.American country newspapers glowing descriptions of the agricultural resources of Canada, thus promotinga propaganda under the guise of honest news.Journal, favorite newspaper name inFrance, 50.Smollett was writing a history of England, and hadbrought it down to the last reign, he cautioned him not to rely onthe debates as given in the Magazine, for that they were not authentic, excepting as to their general import, the work of his ownimagination.APPENDIXI: Biographical Notes.The postal zone law was ably and widely opposed through advertisements.

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Related to these errors of general impressions are those thatgrow out of the meager facts furnished the reporter and theapparent necessity, as he sees it, of supplementing these withaccounts padded by his own imagination.The newspaper and the library, both public and private, haveintimate affiliations.It often happens that theingenious artist in this department is really editing the paper.Few people are influenced by it, many areamused by it.Florios in hand: st is thoughesthere halbes new governour choſen to his place of gouern.The names chosen indicate still more often what the newspaper believes its function to be.So keen havebeen members of Congress to make sure that they have receivedgood measure, pressed down, shaken together, and running over,that they have added to the official reports of legislative proceedings a mass of material having its origin in times and places farremoved from legislative halls.

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New York Times, October 31, November 5, 1916.The Queen, however, was not present.Its general social activitiesEffect of still different conditions in AmericaThe newspaper and public health.This will never do!At anyrate, we suppose all are agreed that the meeting was in Buffalo,and that Gov.

The designof this paper is to diffuse among the people correct information onall interesting subjects, to inculcate just principles in religion,morals, and politics; and to cultivate a taste for sound literature.Difficult as it is in time of peace to deal withthe illustration as historical material, it is manifoldly greaterin time of war.The illustration is becoming more and more a feature of theadvertisement and hence is increasing in value as historicalmaterial.What records he finds in the advertisements themselves mustbe considered elsewhere.No waiting for thehappy mood.

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Appeal made to secure recruits.The illustration may also serve the cause of justice throughenabling the officers of the law to detect and to identify thosewho have violated the law.An institution that should always fight for progress and reform, nevertolerate injustice or corruption, always fight demagogues of allparties, never belong to any party, always oppose privilegedclasses and public plunderers, never lack sympathy with the poor,always remain devoted to the public welfare, never be satisfiedwith merely printing news, always be drastically independent,never be afraid to attack wrong, whether by predatory plutocracy or predatory poverty.The Significance of Mr.The success of the planwas apparently not sufficient to justify its repetition in subsequent years.The religious press becomes so highly specialized that itrepresents every variation of religious opinion, and then a recombination ensues.Whig as an epithet of reproach.

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Differences in personality of metropolitan and of country pressContrasts in personality of dailies, weeklies, and monthliesPersonality affected by personality of editor.Christmas Fund for Belgian Children; the Royal Blind Asylum andSchool, Edinburgh, Scotland; the British Red Cross and theOrderof St.The conductor of anewspaper, like a good cook, should always serve up things intheir season: who eats oysters in June?Some of them are due to carelessness, 4240 New York Evening Post, June 30, 1913.It now numbers approximately two thousand titles and forms a part of the Vassar College Library.Seealso Newspaper as a business enterprise.Attitude of governments towards the foreign correspondent.

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His errors156Number of errors of reporter explains distrust of press.Ford has edited an important check list of broadsides.The editor in GermanyInfluences undermining power of editorial.The illustration like the text often suffers from the necessityof having to anticipate conditions and events that may belieanticipations.Fromall these hands we have such draughts of mankind, as are represented inthose burlesque pictures which the Italians call caricaturas; where the artconsists in preserving, amidst distorted proportions and aggravated features,some likeness of the person, but in such a manner as to transform the mostagreeable beauty into the most odious monster.

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All such associations have their own difficulties, aswell as serious obstacles to overcome, in their efforts to servethe press.The war correspondent believes that heholds the blue ribbon of the profession and that it is unfair andunreasonable to judge the experts in it by the bungling, bumptious amateurs who have crept in under the fence.See also Namesof wars; Special correspondent; Warcorrespondence.New York Evening Post, December 14, 1912.TheTribune company expressly repudiates any liability or responsibility for their safe custody or return.

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Newspaper had not been flattered so much.Brodrick to accept with hesitation and with many qualificationsthe tendency away from anonymity.The function of drama is precisely that contained in theliteral meaning of the word, doing.Wemyss Reid, William Black, pp.The German government and the French governmentissued bulletins of the war for the troops in the trenches, butquickly the troops themselves, especially those of the Allies,began the publication of their own papers, and their collectedissues better than any other source interpret one side of thespirit behind the great struggle.Stanhope, Aubrey, on foreign correspondence, 187.Much news is suppressed lest it bring discouragement alike tocivilians and to the troops.

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Over forty thousand men already deported for militaryworks, amid awful scenes.But the delinquent and offender may at least be heard in his own defense, and state what his object has and has not been.Identification of numbers of The Federalist.Atkins, Life of Russell, II, chap.It maintains generally amicable relations with thepress, except when it is under criticism by it.

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Sir Charles was that it waspunitive, not preventive.TO2Restrictions through official relations.These are but suggestions of the wide range of time and ofnationalities involved in criticism; theories of the functions ofcriticism have varied; standards of criticism have differed atdifferent times; criticism has changed from age to age.On the other hand, it is perfectlypossible for an inaccurate report to be fundamentally authoritative.Thus the cartoon, like the photograph, the sketch, and thecaricature, carries with it its own limitations, for the cartoonistshows in his work the samepersonal characteristics as are shownby those who express their ideas through words.

The intervieweris always specially desirous of securing information in regard toproceedings done in camera.London thechief organ of public opinion.MAKE TIME FOR YOURSELF.The newspaper on its part stands ready to assume much moreresponsibility than is formally demanded by the law.Changes in the editorial.

The illustration has often been a convenient medium forinfluencing political policy.The slightest error of statement in regard to eventsbrings on it the satire of its even more omniscient competitorswhile the danger of a libel suit lurks in every misstatement inregard to an individual.Pyne and Harrison Co.FAMILYFive tips to help you keep the balance.Oneof the most important of these is the tendency of the public totake more kindly to censure than to praise and it is doubtlessthis that explains why the very word criticism has come to connote adverse judgment.Cobden, Richard, concerned over connection of government and press,88; Delane and, 258.New York Evening Post, November 23, 1916.

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The hyphen in disguise oftenappeared in political advertising.In those days a gulfthat was regarded as impassible divided the members of thePress from the members of the House.The agile advertisement sometimes squares the social circle, 60and it not infrequently assumes a proprietary right in individualsin any way conspicuous in official or business life and politelyappropriates them in the interests of business firms.The two most widely discussed plans for securing greaterreliability in the press have been the establishment of schools ofjournalism and the founding of endowed newspapers.Life, Puck, Punch,7 This was written in 1846 and was probably apropos of the founding ofthe Illustrated London News in 1842.

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Cromwell, Oliver, 54; funeral of, 415;Daily Princetonian, nickname of, 50.Furniss, Confessions of a Caricaturist, 2 vols.Brodrick and, 266; at Oxford,278; MSS.All the world is in the paper.Upon no others is the maxim morebinding than upon editors.The press may not grasp the dimensions themovement hasalready attained and hence miscalculate the proportion of spaceto be given it.We hear you made a strong speech in the Congress yesterdayagainst compulsory arbitration.

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But this condemnation fails to recognize the variations injudgment and in interest thatmake one set of conditions seemvastly important to one person and entirely negligible to another.Censure more acceptable than praise.Philippe, Louis, in caricature, 401.The historian must recognize thehabit of signature in the French press, of anonymity in the English newspaper press and the early quarterlies and of signature inthe later quarterlies and the monthlies, of an extreme tendencytowards signature in all American periodicals, and of an inconspicuous anonymity in the German press.Santa Claus developed by, 402.Matthew Arnold, Letters, I, 271.Magyars, apathy of, 177.

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The almanac was at one time issued by many local newspapers, butas thus issued it was necessarily slight in form and in matter; the localalmanac yielded the field to that of the metropolitan press and the WorldAlmanac is now the most important survivor, and represents in moreextended and more authoritative form the earlier attempts at almanacmaking.He finds a record of sordid influencesbehind the enormousexpansion of advertising during the war, both in its volume, andin its costliness, since it has been possible to deduct the sums expended for advertising from the profits on which income and excessprofits taxes were payable.English reviewers has been towards undue censure, that ofAmerican reviewers has of late been towards undue praise.Beyefens vvordro make bouleschere upon, and ſo provide themcom ro Weiſſenberge bcture but the 8 ofthus felves for the vvhole vvinter.House of Lords, commanding vast wealth and high social prestige; or into a recipient of birth day honors.Sunday audiences are large andappreciative, all sermons are eloquent or timely, all church musicis beautiful and harmonious.Letter of Lord Acton from Munich, October 6, 1861.

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The New York Telephone Company carried advertisementsgiving specific information in regard to the use of the telephonewhen summoning help in cases of fire, lawlessness, or accident.Cruisſnach, the other partSuresThe Emper.Memories and Studies of War and Peace, pp.This has often been done in the case of foreigners where identification isdifficult for readers.He published portraits of the Petroleuses.

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The authenticity of a part of the documents was seriously questioned in Paris, as also by the head of the American Red Cross mission in Russia, andby the head of the Finnish Information Bureau in New York, but through the Committee on Public Information they were published widely in American newspapers.Ewes, I, 409410.He looks too young for theoffice.Germany, 28 and later by Italy.Zola on anonymous criticism.

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It may be thought that many of the errors found in the pressare connected with the source from which the information is derived, yet this is probably true only to a slight extent.Reporters and court trials.In many cases it would appearthat the matter sent to the papers by their correspondents inTurkey is biased against the Turks.For this situation the publisherrather than the newspaper must largely be held accountable, yeta certain amount of blamemust be attached to the press.Responsibility of educational authorities.Bowles, Samuel, 32, 251; his theory ofjournalism, 270.

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Thorold, Life of Henry Labouchere, chaps.Scholarships at Washington College.Parliamentary reports on reporting.Please get influential friends start strong campaign opinion which mightprevent extensive slave raid.It seems probable that thewriter was in reality referring to the caricature rather than to the cartoon.Petronius mentions that the actuarius, who copied out theacto, read them aloud at table to amuse the company.

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Vizetelly, Glances Back through Seventy Years, I, 154.HOW FAR CAN THE PAST BE RECONSTRUCTEDFROM THE PRESS?Mercurius being invariablyapplied to periodicals.Hill gives interesting parallel versions of the debates as reportedby Dr.Sun or the Tribune during the middle of the nineteenth century.

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The Journal of Commerce had been jealously excluded fromthis association, but its new owners had known of a rowboatthat had prowled around Boston Harbor and collected newsfrom incoming European packets and they quickly transferredthe idea to New York where they built a yacht, named it theJournal of Commerce, erected a semaphore telegraph to whichtheir news was signalled and which through various relaysreached the publication office.Nothing new has passed at the frontsince yesterday.Thesepermanent elements are those furnished by federal, state, county,town, and municipal governments; by other official organizationsof a public or a private character; by business associations whosecredit in the eye of the public depends on their contributing tothe press only absolutely trustworthy information; and by manyelements of thenewspaper itself considered as a business enterprise.And in whatmanner?Case and Comment, 48.Through advertisements ofSaturday, August 18, the chairman gave definite information tothe citizens of the city concerning the food bill advocated byGovernor Whitman and directed his advertisements againstunscrupulous food speculators and other selfish interests.

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The newspaper has been called anadvocate, a broker, an entertainer, an informant, an interpreter,a solicitor, a teacher, and a tribune.The Commonwealth Mercury, purporting to have been printed in 1658.Premature generalizations of the press.The reporter may be handicapped by other conditions thathe does not or can not control.Freedom from errors of fact in editorials.

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The press itself is the best refutation of the conventionaljudgments passed on America, and presumably of those passedon other countries.It is a question not yet decided as to what was the real opinion of Englandin regard to the Civil War in America, but there is not a shadow of doubt asto what was the attitude of the London Punch.The hostility of the Duke of Wellington towards newspaperswas not confined to war correspondents in the Spanish peninsulaand to editors in London, but was all embracing in extent andcharacter.Much of this symbolism has been both interesting and significant.The tendencyhas been more and more away from anonymity and more andmore towards measuring the importance of an article by thename attached to it.Memorials of Willard Fiske, I, xiv.

Division of labor in the sanctum.PRMOTE YOUR SMALL BUSINESS.Times, and itis for the editor on the spot to decide what ought to be made public andwhat ought to be suppressed in my correspondence.Chirol, Valentine, expelled from Germany, 186.New York Evening Post, October 19,1912.Williams of the Early English press, the history of the newspaper press has yet to be written.Cobbett, William, Stephen on, 285;on questionable advertisements, 369.

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Many years ago a great publishing house planned a series of volumes dealing with American statesmen, and so successfully were these men discussed in their public capacity that a companion series quickly followed.In this very difficulty lies, in a measure, the protection of thehistorian.Frequent use has also been made of the important collections of the New York Public Library.The Packard Motor Car Company believed that its positionin regard to the payment of its employees during absence onmilitary duty had been misstated by a Detroit daily in a leadingarticle and a leading editorial.Many ofthese guarantees may seemto the casual reader of minor imguaranteed only the figures of circulation contained in the report of theAssociation.

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These efforts to secure honest advertising have been of late somuch in evidence that it is natural to think that they have beena product of our own high standards.Guiterman, Arthur, Rhymed ReviewsHarvard Crimson, nickname of, 50;of, 313.This partial enumeration of the manifold relationships of thepress and other activities must indicate that it is a source forthe study of any period and of presumably any question, andthat therefore it can not be ignored by the historian.Christian Science Monitor, September 1, 1916.Westminster Review, Bulwer on, 437.Some of these rivals had comparatively few illustrations and no cartoons, and evidently grew up in conditions that afforded little material forgenuine satire, either of the pen or pencil, such as was found in the originalPunch.

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These opposing tendencies indicate the line of cleavage in the press between the newspapers thatare ephemeral andthose that contain genuine literature.Henry Vizetelly, Glances Back Through Seventy Years, I, 156.That old newspapers were interesting reading had always been appreciated, but no historian had hitherto ventured to use them as a main authority for his work.Confantinople it is wricted that the greae Turke therein before, while this company weotinto the Caſtle, cheethcere, is conto Adrianapolie.Analysis of his errors possible.

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Jones, Paul, broadsides of, 340; newspaper accounts of, 488.Their dissatisfaction with criticism.There isa tendency to include all papers, of all times, and of all countriesin these blanket charges.This Person tells the Bureauwhat gifts are desired by listing them on the form sent by the Bureau.Forebacchey ofHertogenbuske, didcake chegouemour ofthe Graucs watch and horſes, he ſeot our certaine Souldiersferued the Vnion goefrom heace to Wetceriw, and the Koi o enter into Village belonging to the Buſh called Oly:phauſhe Souldiers are come into the Terricones ofWurtz Where as then there was a Fayre, which he ranclacke andburg 1000.The Duke of Wellington on the press.Is dramatic criticism necessary.

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Duke ofNewburg or Sulczbach will ſay to thac, wc thalhere.Chapter VI gives a brief but excellent historical sketch of thedevelopment of the newspaper on the continent.These he can for the most part quicklydetect and either correct or omit them as unnecessary in hisreconstruction of the past.Lauriston Bullard who saysthat the first war to be adequately and comprehensively reported in thedaily press was the conflict of 1846 and 1847 between the United Statesand Mexico.Tests for authoritativeness applied to local reporter.

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The rural free delivery brings the city paper to farms and villages, but the city paper does not supersede the country paper.Yet evenhere general statements must be qualified.The publication of numerous signed articles written by expertsor by special correspondents has added authoritativeness to thenewspaper, but the custom hasmeant a decline in the influenceof the editorial.CHAPTER VITHE GENERAL REPORTERParts of the newspaper affording guarantees.Life of, reviewed by Mrs.He hasbecome not merely a nuisance, but ridiculous.Jerrold, Blanchard, Catling and, 281.

The criticism of the press most frequently heard and that, iftrue, most limits its authoritativeness is that the press does notgive the news, but wilfully suppresses it through fear of offendingits advertisers, or prominent citizens to whom it is beholden, orfor other unspecified reasons.The first distinction that the historian must make is thereforebetween the characteristics of the reviews as found in the dailies,the weeklies, the monthlies, and the quarterlies.English and its reporters called sternlyto account if they sin againstci the literary canons of the office.Edinburgh Review still acted upon the precedent set by Jeffrey, according to which a contributor, especially,Plyi rawof course, a young contributor, was regardedsupplyingiltaalteredy conmaterial which might be rather arbitrarilyby the editor.And so be issued under the seal of the office,As Staple News; no other news be current.

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Essen, Leon van der, on accounts ofbattle of Yser, 488.Propaganda masquerading under the guise of telegraphicreports of news to promote a better understanding betweennations has been one of the most dangerous, because insidious,enemies of proprietary news organizations.See also Interviewers.This is conveyed not only bythe text, but even more by the cartoons and caricatures that cover the periodof the war.Fleming,Documentary History of Reconstruction, Vol.At present the demand is for sensationalism which is worthless for historicalpurposes.Turke,Thurſday next ar Crentznach, and Sunday sfeer arOpeo.

Some Specialists on Duty.New York dailies, November, 1916.Hewas attacked by the German press forgranting the interview, although its facts seem not to have beenquestioned, and the attack led to the repudiation.See Reporters,Parnell, Charles, letter forged undername of, 417.Gaultier, Le Rire et la Caricature, 1911.In the first place, it is mucheluded.

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The press and literature.Cabinet Minister, and, in between,turning a ready hand to any trivial, dull little piece of drudgerywhich happens to need doing.However exaggerated and however untrue in themselves the details may be, there may be no question that thepicture is true in essentials.An independent journal mustoffend both parties, and all parties, or must hold itself ready tooffend when they go wrong.Special limitation of symbolism.Apparently nothing resulted from this earliest proposal.Browne, The Press and Poetry of Modern Persia, pp.

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Emphasis on his work given by schools of journalism.These mottoes and appeals are of great interest in the study of the historyof the press, recording, as they do, the interest of the day.Windham, William, on parliamentaryreporters, 169.The American newspaper correspondent in Europe in timeof peace cannot get used to the fact that he can not quote the names of his informants.Hoe, in A Short History of the Printing Press, gives a full account ofthe inventions that have made possible the enormous increase in the production of newspapers and a corresponding decrease in the time and labordemanded.Meantimewe are assured,by a very good Hand from Paris, That on the zoth Instant, this youngPrince was as well as ever he was known to be since the Day of hisBirth.

Corresponding nationalcharacteristics and differences are evident in the cartoons, caricatures, and illustrations that have been collected from everynation on the globe.Unemployment, question of, minimizedby American press, 98.The caste ofreporters neither had, nor wished to have, any relations with theBrahmins of the green benches below them.The ideals of a newspaper are a part of its personality and theseideals are often expressed in its motto.His first feeling is one of lack of confidencegrowing out of what writers of advertisements have written inregard to their own methods and their own conception of therelative importance of the advertisement and the other parts ofthe paper.Therefore we shall take particular care to give such anAccount of Books, as the Reader may thence be able to form aperfect Idea of the Design, Method and Principal Topicksinsisted upon by the Authors.

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Address at the complimentary luncheon tendered the editorial staffof the Evening Post, November 16, 1901.Newsboys have specially enlisted its interest andit promotes summer camps for them, it invites them to see baseball games, gives them dinners, and entertains them at movingpicture shows.Delane, editor of the leading journal, and Lord Palmerston, thePrime Minister.With the increasing expenses of modern newspapers under the stressof competition the necessity of swelling the advertising revenue of a paperbecomes of paramount importance.Comparative merits of different forms of reports.

But the illustration has for the historian certain very definiteconcrete advantages not shared by the body of the paper.This growing interest of the press has in a measure had amercenary origin.His speedy disappearance again foretold.One misgiving which haunted me at theoutset proved entirely delusive.That the newspaper, therefore, has regard for its advertisingcolumns is a natural business consequence, as business is nowconducted.Court decisions on property in news.

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Jeffrey was twitted toof Wordsworth, Southey, and Coleridge.I1; illustrated, II;oil, 11; real estate, 11.But the ultimate exposure ofthe real character of the newspaper undoubtedly acted as aboomerang against the inventors of the scheme.Every character was labeled, and often represented as halfanimal, sentiments were enclosed in loops, and nothing wassuggested or left to the imagination.Getts, March 22, 1921.

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Nouvelles à la main.Czar and Sultan, pp.If I had dropped the littlefellow overboard, what a lot of trouble would have been saved toEurope and the world.In the first place, the Continental artist ranges much wider for hisgame.The problem has been definitely met and best met by a centraldistributing agency.

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The weaker newspaperto whom that contract is vital is very apt to overlook the necessity ofpresenting this particular piece of news.Reconstruction through advertisements of department store.This Association discontinued service May 21, 1914, and its place hasbeen taken by the Audit Bureau of Circulations.Twenty Thousand Cheer as SulzerOpens His Primary Campaign.The city of Cleveland, Ohio, named in honor of Moses Cleaveland, it is said variesin spelling fromthe name of its chief founder owing to theexigencies of the headline of the first newspaper printed there.Cramped opportunities of early papers.Armour boy, Uneedabiscuit boy, Jello girl, Fairy Soap child, Gold Dust twins, Campbell kids,and a score of others are all familiar friends.

One can tell from the cartoons exactly what was the official formula at the date when they were published.It is of interest to compare these activities as they have beendeveloped collectively by the press, with the activities that havebeen accumulated on a large scale by a single newspaper like theLondon Daily Mail.These have often been circulated by enterpris ing business firms through a desire to attract attention to their products, but the publicity desired for the articles to be sold prevents deception as to the means used.Cablegram of February 18,1916, New York Times, February 19, 1916.Previous charges ofthis nature had been made on the floor of Congress where thosemaking them had been immune, or they had been so carefullymade as to permit escape from the penalties of libel, or theyhad been voluntarily retracted.

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The authoritativeness of the press is limited by its own desirefor news, but the press itself is coming to appreciate that it there53 The city editor of a New York daily has kindly given this outline of aplan already discussed:A prominent newspaper man in New York has served as an army manoeuvre expert.General criticism of the reporter.Packard Motor Car Co.Author and Editor, for though not, as I hope, insensible to fairreason, I used sometimes to rebel against what I reckoned mereauthority, and this partly perhaps as a matter of literary conscience; being wont to write nothing without studying if possibleto the bottom, and writing always with an almost painful feelingof scrupulosity, that light editorial hacking and hewing to rightand left was in generalnowise to mymind.It was thought afeather in the cap of all parties; and with their feathers theytickled one another.New York Tribune,November 9, 1916.Local correspondents sometimes fail to seeevents in true perspective.

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Detroit Free Press, April 13, 1915.It therefore attempts to give an analysis of the component parts of the press, with a sufficient number of examples to illustrate or to justify the conclusions that have been deduced.The pedestal symbolizes the Maisondu Grand Coq where many of the activities of Renaudot were carriedon.Political office and the press in FrancePolitical honors in England.Prage,it that comes to palle, it Thall not run of vithFrom Cadan in Bohemia, fromourblowves, the ülich might be revealed withRaconies, the 12.

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The name of the paper was soon changed to The Athenian Mercury, later the questions and answers were collected in fourvolumes under the title The Athenian Oracle.An important document in 1918 came from Washington supporting a greatpopular movement.But after all has been said that can be said in favor of the interview, the historian must always question its absolute authoritativeness when he considers the designations attached to it, the objects for which the interview is sought and granted, the subjects of the interview, and the literary form given it.By connecting with each other is when we find the strength andcourage to keep on moving.In thedistribution of birthday honors a goodly proportion has fallen tothe lot of provincial and colonial editors.Accretion of new interests.

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Done by several Hands.New York Evening Post, January 28, 1911.The volume gives ahistory of the paper and includes a number of the contributionsmade to it.JOHNSON, SamuelJONES, Henry ArthurJONES, John PaulJONSON, BenJOWETT, Benjamin1709 1784 lexicographerdramatist1747 1792 naval officer1573?In so far as errors come from sensationalism, the causemay be found in the poor taste of thenewspaperreading public, and the remedy may lie in educating the taste ofthe public through offering them newspapers of improvedcharacter.

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It was in 1795 thatCharles Whittingham started The Tomahawk!Lincoln in 1860, you should study the New Yorkweekly Tribune.Compromise on disagreements between the twoEffect ofmutual relation on authoritativeness of the press.Joseph Reinach once said that in?The catalogue for the year ending June,1869, announced the general plan, 58 and a circular letter concern56 The Independent, June 9, 1864, vol.The varying opinions have been affected by national and political conditions to which the press has from time to time beenobliged to conform, and they have also varied with the nature ofthe periodical.An authorized translation of the paper is given in the London Times,September 23, 1893.

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Sala, Life and Adventures, II, chap.He recognizes the manifest usefulness that the newspaper might have in his work, yet he hesitates to accept a formof material the authoritativeness ofwhich has not been thoroughlyestablished.You tellme my plan will mutilate the Press, destroy its influence, takefrom it its individuality?Du87 William Simpson, Autobiography, pp.These give records of passing interests of society oftenleft in no other way and of the permanent impression made ontheir own times by men of inventive genius or of pronouncedcharacteristics.

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The critic asa reporter of dramatic news should furnish an outline of theprogramand note whatever of news value attaches to the performance.Importance of press in reconstructing normallife.There was, as a rule, no display of such politicalnews elsewhere; there were no headlines.The foregoing was published as a matter of business routine.In the first place, theeditors are to abstain from printing anything which can give aid or comfortto the enemy, and their correspondents are to observe equal caution; inreturn for which complaisance, Government is to be asked to give the pressopportunities for obtaining and transmitting intelligence suitable for publication, particularly touching engagements with the enemy.

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Album des Kladderadatsch gives the representations of Bismarck contained in it from his firstappearance as a Prussian deputy in the Frankfort parliament in 1847 tohis dismissal in 1890.Republicanchiefs in the robes of ancient revelers at the banquet of privilege with Blainehimself in close conference with Jay Gould, Commodore Vanderbilt andothers.Interviewers often not specially qualified.Guarantees as a business enterpriseORegulations of press for protecting readers.Since thisin its turn has seemed a difficult matter to determine, he has attimes been tempted to include the newspaper in his wholesalecondemnation of all material that is unreliable, inaccurate, andsensational.Early activities of the Atheneum.Yet in both the private individual and the individualspeaking through the press it is an evidence of mental immaturityand untrained mind rather than an illustration of deliberateA serious limitation on the usefulness of the press to thehistorian is found in its failure to give continuous news; it givesfull information on any subject only in times of crises.

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This has been particularly noticeable during the recent war where the constant comparison between present and past conditionshas been possible only becauseof the fund of exact information at command.You get association of prestige, character, and responsiveness to legitimateappeal.Sir Hedley believed that theadvertisements had been responsible for the deposit of a large proportionof this amount.FIND TIME FOR YOUR FAMILY.The newspaper expenses in theAmerican Civil War were enormous.

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Lack of enthusiasm for endowed press.But illness compelleda change of piece at the last moment.John Murray, Letter to Thomas Blackwood, Mrs.But the reporter is often cheerful under fire and is sometimesdisposed to take these errors not too seriously, as is evident fromthe jests the press itself collects and publishes on its own shortcomings.Walpole and his ministryworked through political pamphlets, the Opposition throughnewspapers.These letters were presumably concerned primarily with personalmatters, but their narrations were naturally supplemented byaccounts of events of the day and by descriptions of the countrywhere they were written.Daily Mail, London, net daily sale of,review.

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The charge is often made that the editor has changed hisposition on important public questions and the implication isconveyed that the change has come from a desire to curry favorwith those in authority, or from the still more ambitious plan ofbecoming the power behind the throne.Roosevelt and Bryan, only somewhat recently, were both quoted assaying that the great mass of daily papers had ceased to deserveconfidence.The Romans had not much taste for home life, but strolled abroad and spent most of their time in the Forum.He did not know any of the conductors of the press; buthe understood themto be a set of men who would give into acorruptmisrepresentation of opposite sides.Much space is given in the press to the letters of regular correspondents concerning foreign and domestic affairs.

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Even moresordid conditions are recorded in the advertisements for thereturn of stolen goods and offers from legal owners to buy atfull value stolen surveying instruments or other implements ofa profession or trade.Even before McMaster had placed so great a reliance onnewspapers as a source for his work, von Holst had shown something of the possibilities inherent in this class of material andhad made effective use of it, though in a limited way, in hisConstitutional and Political History of the United States.This has been notably seen in the cartoon used during the war of 1914.Americanbeginnings of, 119; historian and,XV; authoritativeness of, Chap.The question may in part be answered by noting the sources ofhis news.The historian is much less interested in the sketch of the battleas such than he is in the condition that makes it necessary toconvey a true impression of an event through a false representation of it.

Johnson was writing the debates, 21 is an experiencefraught with mixed sensations.Maurice and Cooper maintain that the success of caricature depends onits timeliness, its seizure of critical moments, and its grasp of the importantquestion of the hour.Not only must tests be appliedto determine how far the statements of the press can be acceptedat their face value, but it is equally important to submit thenewspaper to those tests that will determine how far it unconsciously records, for better or for worse, the interests of the day,how far material that is in itself absolutely and obviously untruemay yet have value in ascertaining the real conditions of pastlife.In probably most civil wars, an effort is made by both sidesto secure advantageous foreign alliances and war correspondentsare welcomed by the opposing factions in proportion as they areconsidered able to influence favorably public opinion at home.The personality of a newspaper is further disclosed by theemphasis it places on various questions or by omission of them.

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New York Evening Post, March 6, 1916.If it is prompt andefficient, the statements made in regard to its business policy indicate at least its business ideals, while if it is slack or negligent inits business management this is often betrayed by the announcements of its policy.New England, dissemination of news inearly, 7, 8; press of, requested toreport disloyalty, 87.Worry flees before themodel fountain pen.One of the most significant of these guarantees is connected withthe advertisements carried in 1916 by the Metropolitan TrustCompany of New York City.Art criticism, as found in the press, is in its turn open to manyserious criticisms.

The services rendered to literature by the periodical press, asthey have been appraised by a French writer, must not be forgotten.But a proprietary news service organized, widely extendedto other papers, and controlled by a single newspaper has infinitepossibilities for mischief.Interviews, 11, 12, Chap.The cartoon in particular through itsinsight into the past interprets the present for the future; thecartoonist and the historian are thus kindred spirits.SchopenhauSchopenhauer onon criticismcriticism.Changes in the country editor.

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Square and Compass, 48.Reid on,439; Dicey on, 469.We shall be very sparing of our Censures, as remembringour Province is that of Historians and not of Criticks: But atthe same time, when any Books are published relating to ourCivil Constitution or the Established Religion, and are so muchexpected from us, we hope freedom may be allowed us to expressour own Sentiments, so far as to show, that we are not Promotersor Incouragers of Works that tend to make Innovations in either.Inche incane cime preparation is nado ro behiege Rochell, and the Duke do Gwife is gonio Marſellis, chere to pre pare so amic by Sea, co bchegeRochell by water.The object of this plan was apparently to reduce to a minimumthe friction with the censor, to lessen the expense of war correspondence, and to improve the service.Last season, he says, he had protested against whathe considered unfair criticism.

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Garfield quickly denounced the letter as a base and very clumsyforgery and this denial of its genuineness was accepted as final.The historian can not evade the responsibility of at leastattempting to understand the personality of the newspaper if heis to make use of it as historical material, for upon the personalityof the newspaper as a whole largely depends its power for good orfor evil.Such pages mounted onmanila paper would outlive the ordinary usage of a century; but who wouldundertake to select the matter to be thus preserved?Burke, Edmund, pamphlets of, 107.Leslie Ward developed this form of illustration in an interesting way.The war correspondent is never tooinsignificant to escape the notice of the government; the waroffice regards him as its arch enemy; army officers deem him aninterloper; the troops complain that they are not adequatelynoticed by him; the censor wields his blue pencil and mercilesslystrikes out his most telling paragraphs; the general public isprone to consider him omniscient while criticizing him for notproviding on tap fresh and importantnews; to his own newspaperhe is a valuable but expensive asset; to himself, the war correspondent would not be worth sending to the front if he didnot consider his work sufficiently important to justify all theattention it receives from all the circles that it touches.

The Black and Whitecab is purely an experiment.Each circle had its editorial bureau, its correspondence in theprovinces, and the manuscript gazettes had many subscribers.The early periodical illustrations in America, especially caricatures, show how imperfectly developed was the technical sideof the art and how crude was the direct method of using it.Changing direction of correspondence.Yet the advantagemust be held to lie withthe illustration rather than with the writer.From Reinhawſow sbe fame 1621.Decline of personal journalism.

The names of Mr.Dickens on abuse in American papers.As early as 1652 the town council of Glasgow had a regularcorrespondent in Edinburgh and the service was kept for nearlyfifty years; other cities had similar correspondents in the northerncapital.The sea is generally filled with monsters, whenthere are no fleets upon it, mount Aetna immediately began torage upon the extinction of the rebellion: and woe to the peopleof Catanea, if the peace continues; for they are sure to be shakenevery week with earthquakes, till they are relieved by the siegeof some other great town in Europe.Now, gossip, when analyzed, consists simply of a collection ofactual facts, mostly of little moment, and also of surmises aboutthings, of equally little moment.The somewhatmeager histories of the press on the continent, 21outside of France, seem to indicate that the first stage in itshistory concerned the collection of news, and that early news18 The long and extensive use of broadsides is indicated in the cataloguesannouncing auction sales of significant collections.

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Harry Furniss, The Confessions of a Caricaturist, I, vii.WhatSouth Americans Read: The Newspapers.Browning, Robert, drama by, 325.The politician and even the statesman not infrequently remember thecoming election; the clergyman has in his congregation men andwomen of questionable business and private morality; the leadingcitizen does not always in time of danger press on to the front.This association is not to make anyprofit and is not to make or declare any dividends.Avenarius evidently published Das Bild als Verleumder with the objectof showing the Germans and the neutral countries the misrepresentations inthe illustrated papers of France, England, and Russia.

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Yet the way had been long prepared for him.Robinson Crusoe, published as newspaper serial, 106.We are seriously engaged in the endeavor to keep the American people accurately informed on a multitude of vital problems which have been suddenly thrownupon us all.Coq, the Gazette de France, the first newspaper printed in Paris, and in 1884 an inscription commemoratingthat event was placed on the building erected on the site of theearlier structure.This was a peculiarity that distinguished its foreigncorrespondence, as was also the entire independence in whichit left its correspondents in the expression of their opinion, evenwhen, as often happened, these opinions were radically opposedto the editorial tone.

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Lessing, Laokoon of, 289.The reporter, as he sees himself crushed between the upperand the nether millstone, is indeed far different from the reporteras he is sometimes believed to be.Onthe other hand, he feared that the same system would grow upas in Ireland, where some papers had been set on foot solely withthe view of making profit by the government advertisements.Murray and Blackwood and their editors.Different opinions268Differences in different countries.

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The public quickly loses interest in the detailsof a campaign, spectaculardescriptions of charges and combats andendurance of sieges soon pall, the center of continued interest shiftsfrom the front to the conditions behind, below, and beyond thefront, and thesales increased by a factitious interest quickly decline.New York toParis.But it is the advertising that also unconsciously reveals thevery real sufferings and privations entailed by war.The cartoon of Punch has been the result ofthe conference of the entire editorial staff and it is thus in accordwith the settled policy of the paper as a whole.Whitman, Governor, interview by, 240;politicaladvertisementsagainst 349n.

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New York Tribune, November 10, 1918.Renaudot showed himselffar in advance of his day and generation.One illustration will suffice as representing many that could be given.The Tribune rejoiced that newspapers were pioneers in learnedexploration, that not satisfied with the dissemination of knowledge collected by learned men, they were themselves makingtheir own investigations and explorations.Farm Journal, proposal by, 371.

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Gardiner, Pillars of Society; and Prophets,Priests and Kings.Victorian Recollections, pp.The Times says I repeat myself; the Times says I am guilty of what it calls tautology; theTimes says I am always saying the same thing.Advertisements were published in the press telling in a clear, definiteway how the proposed law was a menace both to the people and the roads,and the bill failed.Catalogue ofWashington College,1869.

English andAmerican newspapers.These lectures, probably somewhat extended,have been published under the title Du Journalisme, 1902.The illustration is often purposely faked, but it must not beforgotten that the illustration may become a corrector of erroneous statements.Lloyd cites a conspicuous case where appearances indicated suppression of news, but otherreasons might be assumed besides the one inferred.Fleet Street, or, lower still, a journalist in Fleet Street.

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The most significant change in illustration has been its introduction into advertising.That in spite of every precaution against sending out incorrectnews, the Associated Press sometimes does send out such newsis inevitable, but wherever possible the wrong is redressed.It is in the pages of the Kladderadatsch that the steps are seenby which Bismarck in the public eye changed from a Prussianinto a German.Some illustrationsmay be intended to make readers see, others to make them think.Fog, Defoe and, 263.Havas, as well as of theReuter, Wolff, and other national agencies.Our artistic skill has led us into temptation, and by degrees engendereda habit of making pictures when we ought to be recording facts.

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John Morley on signatureExperiments of The Unpopular Review.Frenchman as the history of the siege ofParis.The communications were made by Napoleon III with a view to influencing opinion both in England and France, and Lord Palmerstonwas able to get from them true insight into the policy of theEmperor.College ever has obtained or beeninvolved in a divorce.New York Evening Post, August 10, 1921.

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Knickerbocker, clientele of, 50.Inns of Court refused to accede,and it was afterwards rescinded, 21 it indicates probably only toowell the early contemptuous attitude towards the reporter thatprevailed in England.The reporter is often at the mercy ofseekers for publicity and may inadvertently be betrayed by thetelephone into an exaggerated report of insignificant events.Moniteur, imitated by Figaro, 415.Grant, Baron Charles, 265.

Yet the advertisement records unerringly all of these conditions.Social evolution of the editor.Crimson imitated by, 414Lancashire, press aids relief of, 13.Ill temper of newspapers.CHAPTER XTHE INTERVIEWThe interview apparently recent.Newspaper repeats experience of museum of natural science.

Thedesire to secure and to keep the advertisements of publishinghouses, as has been suggested, may quite unconsciously affectthe reviews of the books coming from their presses and give tothe author the benefit of the doubt in the case ofmediocre works.In all matters pertaining to the public health as reported bythe press the inquiries of the historian must be specially directedtowards discovering how far conditions that interfere with the30 The American Historical Association had planned to hold its annualmeeting in Cleveland, Ohio, during Christmas week, 1918.Englandand the English, II, 18.House of Commons but once.The Masters ofModern French Criticism, pp.Blackwood had constantly replied to the expostulations of Murraythat no one hated personalities more than he himself did, and that he haddone his best to have the editors avoid them.Publisher, newspaper as, 12.

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The Roman baths gave a similar opportunity, and Jebb finds in the oracles, common both to the Greeks and the Romans another organ of public opinion.Here follows a disquisitionof twenty pages on things in general, with particular mention of the Brazils,the Peninsular War, and Church History.Taylor, but much changed by me intone, led to a protest from the author, and a request from Mr.The newspaper, like the individual, is open to the charge ofgeneralizing from insufficient data.The snapshotmay have great valuein the courts.In Europe a languageof symbolism was quickly developed and this has become standardized while receiving constant additions as new conditionsdemand new symbols.Special difficulties in recent war.

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The charge that the Associated Press is a monopoly is a confusing one since it may imply that it is a commercial monopolyin the sense of making excessive profits through controlling thenews, or it may imply that it is a monopoly through controllingthe market for news and preventing the formation of other newscollecting organizations.Matthew Arnold notes the fundamental differences betweenthe French and the German critics.The British Ministry was asked in the House of Commons, February29, 1916, whether it was aware that the friendly relations betweenUnited States and Great Britain had been injured by offensive articles andcartoons published in England reflecting on American diplomacy andwhether steps should be taken to counteract this influence.Newspapers published under or by any form of governmental 77authority can not be deemed to obviate the errors found in theproprietary press to any greater extent than can a regularly endowed press.Interest of historian in advertising.Delane andLord Palmerston on this subject was until lately in the hands ofmy recently departed friend, Mr.Few have altogetherignored them as did Dr.

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Atkins, The Life of Sir William Howard Russell, I, 124.IWD has occurred for well over a century, with the first IWD gathering in 1911 supported by over a million people.More than ever beforepropaganda has been thus carried on during the recent war, 63and the effort to combat it by one sidehas led to renewed activityby the other side.The neglect and the polite indifference of the Government atWashington to William Howard Russell and its consequentfailure to appreciate the service he was able to render it throughwriting the absolute truth of military and political conditionsboth North and South are but too well remembered.Adverse criticism, even wholesome criticism, is tacitly avoidedby the press itself or is suppressed by government regulation.

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Illustrations an aid to justice.This information in regard to its business activities becomes,especially in the case of the paper with a necessarily small circulation, a guarantee of its independence in a financial way of bothits circulation and its advertising.The AncientFaith in Modern Light, pp.Jonson, Ben, 116, 427; quoted, 114,115, 138, 425.Paris office had been placed for publication in France and inthe French Colonies themessage of PresidentWilson to CongressDecember 3, 1917.The chat of the day, scandal, but, above all, dress, furnished thematerial.

Everyeditor has to meet this situation.The endowed pressGeneral arguments in favorConfusion as to nature.The desire for news has been universal and it has been ministered to in multiform ways.Disadvantages under which the correspondent works.They are spies because their publications reach the enemy, give them direct and minute informationof the composition of our forces, and while invariably they puffup their patrons, they pull down all others.The rapid and wide extension of free systems of education carrying with them compulsory features has created a new and everwidening circle of readers.Church principles, and of topics which immediately affectChurch interests; especially those of an external character, suchas questions of discipline, of disestablishment, of legislation, andgenerally of the relations of the Church with the State.

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The Frankfurter Zeitung franklydisapproved of the plan because of the general lack of confidencein the Wolff Bureau, especially in translating; because the suspicion would be inevitable that when condensation of speecheswas authorized, something had intentionally been omitted; andbecause compression of speeches could best be done by eachpaper, and thus no essential passage would be omitted simultaneously in every newspaper.Stateadvertisement in five hundred newspapers in all sections of the country.Robinson, The Daily News Jubilee,pp.The offer was accepted and the advertisement appeared.Erected in the Blue Ridge Mountains in honor of the War Correspondents of the American Civil War.In England its utterances, and therefore its influence, were longrestrained by the taxes on knowledge, though even before theirremoval discriminating critics have found that newinfluenceswere at work.The evident intention was to revive old animosities between America and England and thus prevent America from supporting the cause of the Allies.

The editor must not offend the public, andthe contributor must not offend the editor.Minimum wage for journalists.Many forms of business whose activities are reported by the pressor whose advertisements are carried in its columns becomethemselves a guarantee of the accuracy of the statements made.Nor was General Sherman the only commander in the CivilWar who anathematized the press.The opinions expressedby Delane in regard to the Civil War in America were apparentlyaccepted without question by the readers of The Times.

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While there has been a great increase in the number of newspapers sold,it has in reality meant but the multiplication of the same things, withoutcorresponding increase in brains and ability.The press and social welfare.The suppression of the news that is often attributed to personalhostility, class interest, or premeditated plan, may have beendue entirely to accident.General character of this criticism.The newspaper both encourages an interest in all educationalmatters and also profits by this interest.The illustration in its own character shows the cleavagebetween those to whom an appeal is made by the crude humor ofthe comic supplement and the sporting page and those attractedby artistic effects both of process and of scene.Subscription lists are not an accurate gauge since so many influences induce subscriptions, nor can the votes cast on public questions accurately record public opinion since the exercise of the suffrage has always been limited by restrictions imposed by religion, property, residence, education, race, or sex.

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Chamber of Deputies, and a smaller but still important number in theSenate.Alert,Hustler, Push, Rustler; to others the transmission of news,Courier, Messenger, Mail, Post, Express, Telegram, Telegraph,Telephone, Cablegram; while other names emphasize the presentation of news, Chronicle, Index, Informer, Intelligencer,Record, Register, Reporter, Tidings, Times.This thing was not done in a corner.But the worm turns!Two daya fince the Lords and Officers of Bohemia thatofrer know, and for that the Lords ofWeymar haue10inca sre comeout of the Courtrie, and now in theNetherlands,their forces with his, che Earle ofMaosfield is about 15 thou.

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Provisions of the Last Will and Testament of Dr.When onegroup has been unified by the press representing the dominantinterest of the group, new interests may arise and a new type ofnewspaper be demanded for the same group.Lamartine spokeof the scum that rises to the surface when thenation boils and theeditorial sometimes reflects the superficial rather than fundamental public opinion.These captions as found indifferent papers may be quite contradictory, even for the sameaccount, but whatever of partisan tinge they may have has beenacquired in the local office, not through the Associated Press.FemaleA web site devoted to Women and Muscle building.Standards of advertising raised.

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Bonwick, James, on Sydney Gazette, 487.Notes of a War Correspondent, pp.The Coming Newspaper, pp.Annual Cyclopaedia,1864, pp.What made their fortune inFrance was not so much their greater freedom, as was the explanation in England, but their satiric character and their dissemination of scandals that really were of libellous nature.

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This led to arupture with the proprietor, and therefore to changes, and to demands that Greenwood could not meet and as a matter of personal honor he resigned.In very manysuch interviews, the interviewer while presumably seeking information from the officer is really interviewing the office and hencethe value of the interview is distinctly limited.Rambler, Lord Acton on, 19.Bunner, A Selection of Cartoons from Puck.Bussey, Sixty Years of Journalism, Preface.Many misleading illustrations have been given, especially by the Continental papers, of places destroyed by the war, or where the war was going on,but taken before the war began.

It was long beforemembers of Parliament realized thatby allowing their speeches to be reported they were multiplying their power, and therefore, long before there was even atacit relaxation of the stringent regulations against the presenceof reporters.The close alliance between the illustration and poetry explains why the illustration in the periodical press and the graphicpress as a whole have the quality of interpretation less oftenfound in other parts or forms of the press.Caricature a record of abnormal conditions.Position of provincial reporters.They were passing through the Strand as they talked, and by anewspaper office, which was all lighted up and bright.America and abroad of approximately two hundred and fifty.

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Perkins, and Amos Pinchot.The critic may be the man in the office who is willingto spend his evenings at the theater, and he may be paid byspace and hence criticize all plays by procrustean methods.The historian may have a passing interest in these peculiar issues, recording as they do the existence of peculiarities in the humanmind that find expression through these channels, but he mustregard them only as curiosities having a psychological rather thanan historical value.But the newspaper records the impression made on the publicby the appearance of new works of literature, art, and music.It is impossible to give a definite and final answer to all, perhaps to any one, of these questions, but at least the conditionsto which they give rise must be recognized before the historianis justified in using the periodicalpress as authoritative historicalmaterial.

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Advertisements, April, 1922.Commercial advertising often appeals not only to history butto the imagination.Edinburgh journals were almost parasites on thenewspapersof London and the continent.From that time on the editorial came to be the most important feature of the press, and the paper itself was identified with the editor.Tools, implements, instruments with which work isdone are portrayed as evidence that work is thoroughly done.Thecontemporaneous review may or may not be better than thesubsequent one, but it is necessarily different.It is now an avocation at once simplified and controlled by precise andrestraining limitations.

Fear Mercury and at least two other distinct andseparate pieces of paper put together and photographing thewhole.Kladderadatschall show distinct national traits.Every article, even in a newspaper, should be accompanied bythe name of its author; and the editor should be made strictlyresponsible for the accuracy of the signature.The account of the deception was copyrighted by JohnElfreth Watkins.No more important illustration of this can be found than becomes evident in examininglong runs of periodicals, or extended files of newspapers.In 1917 it had 52, 000 special correspondents in its service, it had graduated from its affiliations with the Reuter service of London, the Wolff service of Berlin, the Havas service of Paris, and the smaller agencies of other countries, into the maintenance of its own bureaus in all the great capitals of the world, as well as in the leading American cities.The historian has at hand a mass of official documents,constitutions, charters, laws, treaties, court decisions, and similarmaterial.

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The paper may be aristocratic in its tendencies and likethe London Times in its earlier days seek its clientele only amongthose influential through birth, wealth, or intellect.TheNew Republic, May 10, 1919, 19: 33; New York Times, April 30, 1919.Every issue of a great newspaper represents the work ofscores, hundreds, possibly thousands of persons all over the worldand it seems obviously impossible for the historian to investigatethe truth of even a small proportion of the statements made bythe press.Its generalappeal is to the somewhat sentimental side of human nature.The authoritativeness of the press is not necessarily impeached by reason of itsmutually contradictory parts.

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The melancholyJaques has his chair in many a sanctum.This wascontradicted by the postmaster of the village in question whostated that Mr.Madison, James, letters of, 422.German Newspapers: Being representativeextracts from those of the memorable month of December, 1914.Early appealmade by them336.Honan on war corresponding in,Index, 48.

Brentano gives an extended account, Les Nouvellistes, pp.New York Evening Post, December 8, 1908.Probably in every communitythe press is divided against itself on all disputed educationalquestions and thus the historian must also steer between opposing dangers in his efforts to reconstruct from the press alone theintelligent public opinion on education.But the very extent to which invention has promoted speed inproduction and cheapness in distribution makes it necessary forthe historian to take them into account.It has been well said that two generations ago American cartoons tried tomould public opinion, to make political capital, and to win votes, but thatthey only resulted in personal abuse.

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Register, mottoes of, 44, 462.It considers the press only on its esoteric side.The advantages and disadvantages of this plan have been hotly contested on both sides.The Rhinorate Ouains horſe men that are diſcharged that.The troubles of editors with contributors do not end with thewrath expressed by them over the editorial changes made in theirmanuscripts.Francis, John Francis, II, 239.

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Partington, or a Dulcinea, it is an important contributory factorto thepersonality of a newspaper.At theother extreme is the important indirect limitation that concernsthe source of news.Christmas carolsto the college waiting below.Wall Street, press and, 441.THE NEWSPAPERAND THE HISTORIANname is affixed to articles which the reader sees to be the work of adifferent hand.The line it takes on any particular question is much more a matterof accident than is supposed.

Florida,Texas, California, and Oregon each have special advantages to advertise;and the adventurous pilgrim who seeks a new home and wider field of industry is sure to meet welcome and good words from these and many otherbidders for more population.The illustration may serve political as well as artistic ends, asthe text may have a primary political end and a secondary literaryone and it may have its counterpart in a corresponding form ofliterature, as the illustrated satires of Life find their counterpart in thedescriptions of the sameconditions given by the gentlesatire of George William Curtis in the Potiphar Papers.These facts in regard to the war correspondent have beensuggested to indicate that the historian is not only concernedwith the authoritativeness of the material he presents but heis concerned with the character of the material.The press may not be openlysubsidized by the government, yet this result may be practicallyaccomplished by the low postal rates granted it, by the awardsof public printing and political advertising, by appointments tooffice, or by other favors shown.The correspondent should give his sources whereverpossible, and allow the reader to form his own opinion on thefacts submitted.Lewes felt that to ensuregood dramatic criticism more was necessary than good plays,good acting, and good critics.

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Chalmers, George, claim made by, 413 414.It has helped to standardizeforms and processes, and it has made definite contributions tojournalism, but its contributions to the press have been slight.At the same time, Mr.Speed may be attendedby inaccuracy, and the newspaper sold for a cent may cater tothose who value a commodity by the low price paid for it.Dramatic criticism has been hampered not only by theatermanagers and by advertisers, but also by the social conditionssurrounding critics.Three general systems of legislative reporting have been used.London, as it is now among the natives of India.

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IIOIIIEarly indifference of library to newspaper files.The World,May 28, 1921.Nast and his Friends, pp.The New York Timesstates that all its advertisements are censored and selected.The war correspondence of the Daily News as collected and publishedin 1871 forms a continuous narrative of the war between Prussia andFrance, as the war correspondence of the Daily News in 1877 gives a continuous narrative of the war between Russia and Turkey.Since Delane was independent personally, was independent of the Government of the day, and was independent of party ties, the answer in this caseis a simpler matter than it sometimes is.

Borrow, George, on foreign correspondents, 194.Itis not simply the advertisement itself with whose authoritativeness he is concerned, he is even more concerned with all the influences that have made it what it is.These criticismsit resents as coming from a source it deems incompetent to passjudgment on the work of experts, yet it is at a distinct disadvantage in all controversies with the press since educational organsare comparatively few in number, they are published at infrequentintervals, they are little read outside of the profession, and theiropinions receive scanty approval when transferred to the columnsof the ordinary press.Magazine and in its rival, the London Magazine, must be dismissed as having little or no historic value, however great itsbiographical value may be.New York Evening Post, January 18, 1919.

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Difference between the press and journalism.His letters to his brother are filled with denun18 English Journalism, and the Men Who Have Made II, pp.It shows the plans and theinterior arrangement of hospitals, the uniform of surgeons,physicians and trained nurses, and it spreads far and wide specificknowledge of sanitary conditions.Serbia, relief of, 338.Charles Mathews and Benjamin Webster at length protested against it,and it gradually fell into disuse.He strove, unsuccessfullyfor some years, to persuade the English press to publish his foreign news telegrams, but in 1858 The Times published matterforwarded from Paris by a Reuter agent.

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Different types of wars.The text of the decision is given in full in the New York Times, June22, 1917.The courage ofyoung critics is prodigious; they clamber up to the judgmentseat, and, with scarce a hesitation, give their opinion upon worksthemost intricate or profound.Effect of signature on personality of pressAdvocates for and against signature.Industrial firms announce to the public that agreements satisfactory to both parties have been reached and that strikers havevoted to return to work.Illness and death are banished bypatent medicines and hygienic shoes.

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Lynchhad seen when with the Prussians.In such as are chronicled, a different set of conventional phrases is used.That this conviction of the value of the advertisement inacquainting the public with both sides of a controversy has hada basis in fact seemsborne out by the great acceleration in thisform of advertising since 1916.These contributions were madewith the utmost secrecy, and no human being was aware that theEmperor of the French was writing in the Times except Mr.The newspaper and expansion of interests.

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New York City in 1916 andwas placed in charge of the Advertising Club.Dramatic criticism in the press is a comparatively recentdevelopment.Lightson theGeorgian Period, pp.Amateur journalism binds togetheras well as represents the interest developing in growing youth.The special foreign correspondent is always in a peculiarlytrying position as well as in one involving serious responsibility.It is difficult to findillustrations in the past that give the depth of understanding offundamental contemporaneous thought as many of those of thepresent time have given.International News Service should becoerced into giving up the field; or whether the Sun Printing andPublishing Association was justified in protesting against thecourse of action taken by other associations.

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The contemptuous verdictofMr.British writers have been less enthusiastic both as to the theoretical importance and the practical value of such schools.In all selection of news, the ultimate decision in regard to that selection is made by the membersof the Associated Press, not by the persons or interests wishingto be selected.New York Tribune, July 30, 1916.The length of no paragraph was to exceed seven lines.

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These variations and even positive disagreements as to thenature and function of criticism seem to indicate the tendencyof each generation to discard the standards of previous generations.My complaint against the Times is that its totalignorance of the quarrel and the presumption with which it pronounced upon its merits, led to its pouring out a ceaseless flood ofscurrilous abuse, couched, indeed, in decent language, but asessentially insulting as the brutal vulgarities of the New York Herald.Among the numerous letters appearing in the London Times that havehad historic interest may be cited those of Lord Acton, Gladstone, andArchbishop Manning on the Vatican Decrees and the question as to how farRoman Catholics owed allegiance to the State when the doctrines of theState and the Church were at variance.Sunday issue, publishes a magazine sectionor an illustrated or comic supplement, and it sometimes givesthe hours when different editions appear.When eight monthslater the error of its reporter was shown the Associated Press,it immediately explained its probable source and apologized,but it could hardly be held responsible for the injustice doneSenator La Follette during the intervening months when errorhad travelled on wings and the Associated Press had beenignorant of its escape.Special articles by experts.Certainly in the early days of the newspaper, when GrubStreet flourished, writers for periodicals were considered in muchthis light.

New York Tribune, February 4, 1918.The press discloses little effort made in eithercountry to remove prejudice and to arrive at a better mutualunderstanding.At a great public meetingcalled in New York in 1915 to consider a massacre of the Armenians, a slight disturbance was caused by the necessity of puttinga man out of the theater.Climax of opposition in 1914.Neither charge was apparently true.

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Ochs newspaper, Irwin on, 53.The war correspondent has defended himself against thecharges brought against his work, but the historian can notaccept this defence without further inquiry.La Caricature en Angleterre, pp.The press recognizes its relation to the State and its obligationto support or to censure it according to circumstances, but theChurch is in effect separated from the press by the interveningState and thus each practically goes its own way.Here, as elsewhere, publicity is the wholesome corrective.Permanent elements in society illustrated.

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If he is using the editorialpage as a cloak for a legitimate commercial enterprise and not to put politicians in office or to tell the people how to think and how to vote he will nothave to issue bonds to meet his obligations.Enormous sums forrelief work have been collected through advertising, but sincethe appeal has been so largely emotional, it is not surprising tolearn through the press that the funds raised have sometimesbeen dissipated in extravagant expenditure.The cartoons are in the issues of February 7 and February 14, 1885.But since nothing indicates that facilities for seeing normalconditions were placed or to be placed at the service of the foreigncorrespondents, the opportunities accorded them must be classedas efforts on the part of government officials to influence foreignopinion through press correspondents.Contemporary critics in America and France.Why are men and women out of work?

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With the Victorious Bulgarians, chap.The Library of Congress has listed all these reprints and checked the variations in them.It seemed probable that theseviews would seriously endanger his hope of election and thatthis was the intention was evident from its being produced justprior to the election, although dated January 23, 1880.Ilainc on both sides, but that the Duke of Bcye:Herc hath becne a greate crie, that the Dukeren ſhould have any folke with in Prage, is jaof Beyeren Fhould have taken in Praghe, and uncertaine, chere uppoo under the Merchantsbearen our King our of the helde, bur is not cervvith in Ncurcuberge are laid many 100.But the passage of the Alien and the Sedition Acts in 1798 had roused great opposition in all newspaper offices and thus gave great importance to the editorial.And the sympathetic reviewerwith fair intent may in turn justly claim the sympathy of hisreaders, as does Lord Acton in his statement of his position, 90and Mrs.

This plan would, of course,provide a constantly renewable brigade of correspondents who would bepractically fit to censor their own material, but would, of course, workunder an official censor.The author says this is the only hint he ever received during his wholecareer as a special correspondent that could be construed into instructions.Interviews sought by officials.Atkins, Lifeof Sir William Howard Russell, I, 162.Dwight, Frederick, on advertising, 361.Times during Crimeanpose, 132.Ohio my brand of politics.

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Whatever the cause, it seems to an outsider that the organiccharacter of the Church of England and its relation to the Stategive it a cohesion that makes it independent of the press andthat fosters aloofness on the part of the press towards the Church.Independent, January 31, 1916, 85: 146.Have you retiring pensions foryour aged journalists?While it was impossible to keep up the plan in its entirety, sincea journalmust be edited by a journalist, it has always had a large infusionof writers not distinctively newspaper men.Macaulay was naturally much vexed and so writes toNapier at some length, but he yielded to the imperiousBrougham.If the people of New York want it, it will stayand multiply.New York Times, December 5, 1918.

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Brodek in connection with a decision rendered by Judge Landis, August 3, 1912, that involved the AmericanPress Association and the Western Newspaper Union.Forgeries during recent war.Brisbaneon writers of, 445.Chorley who gives an account of the efforts of an opera manager to revive his sinking fortunesthrough the aid of journalists who lent themselves to his sensational advertising schemes.The situation was reversed when Bernard Gillam drew caricatures of the Republican presidential candidate for Puck in 1884.Press reports and parliamentary records.Another fertile source of error is found in mistranslation,although it is one that does not belong particularly to the localreporter.

English language every morning.They have been suggested to make evident the statement thatin the use of the newspaper as historical material the historianmust first of all consider the time at which the newspaper waspublished and understand the transformations through whichit has passed.Inthe literary pages the world is the worst of all possible worlds; inthe advertising supplement it is the best of all conceivable worlds.College to the numbers of 118 occupiedseats in the orchestra of the Academy of Music last night andenjoyed the production given.The weather reports andforecasts, the times of sun and moon and tides, the arrival anddeparture of domestic and foreign mails, shipping news, regulations affecting the army and navy, the time and place for holding examinations for the federal civil service, the calendars offederal courts and summaries of court decisions, the names ofpersons admitted to practice in these courts, signed proclamationsof the chief federal executive, reports of the regular federal administrative departments as well as those appointed for times ofemergencies, and a mass of official announcements and reports aremade with the sanction and approval of the federal government.

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Hapgood, who finds that the reporter tends to becomecynical.Other points raised by him have been incorporated above.Vizetelly, Glances Back Through Seventy Years, I, chap.If the newspaper selects its news wisely, the public supports it; if it makes aninjudicious selection, if it suppresses what ought to be printed inthe interests of the public welfare, the public withdraws its support and the newspaper goes to the wall.Occasionally the press has been the victim of a jest at thehands of a dramatic critic and these jests must add a cheerfultone to the somewhat depressing aspects of dramatic criticism.

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As a man is known by the company he keeps, a newspaper is knownby the advertising it carries as well as by its honesty of purpose in its newsand editorial columns.He subordinated himself to the causeof the paper he represented, bore his privations lightly, becamea part of the contest rather than a mere onlooker, and describedwhat he saw in vivid and truthful pictures that rarely lapsedinto mere fine writing.The Times that one finds the mostimportant questions discussed by leading men of affairs for whichthe correspondence columns of no other paper have an equalattraction.It is absolutely impossible for these demands tobe met by those on whom they are made and hence the writingof the articles has been delegated to others, but it appears underthe signature desired.Advertisements that have assumed an unproved thesis, as those ofthe Association to Resist English Domination of AmericanCommerce, have also apparently been ignored.Active campaigns in the interests of health and safety, ofbetterconditions of living and of working are everywhere carried onthrough advertising by great permanent organizations like theLife Extension Institute, by individuals, and by collective industries.Cartoonists, for themost part, are uproariously cheerful, whatever may happen.

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The mere statement of the situation measures its acuteness and theobstacles to betterment.New York Evening Post, August 1, 1914.Here Fraud and Falsehood labour to deceive,And Folly aids them both, impatient to believe.The periodical is alsohelpful in understanding and in reconstructing contemporaneouscriticism.German newspaper office.The editor is and mustbe prepared for every emergency.

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XVII;as a personality, Chap.Union Bag and Paper Co.Tinsley, Random Recollections, I, 91.He held the office of inspector of the franks and thus had facilities for securing intelligence from provincial towns and countrynewspapers.Troublesome as is the question of the general authoritativeness of the press under normal conditions and in time of peace, itbecomes infinitely complicated in time of war.In the case of papers having an unusually large circulation, theguarantee is given their advertisers that the circulation stated hasbeen attested by a responsible organization.

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Thisreadiness to accept his views, especially on a foreign situation,was undoubtedly due to the confidence felt in him because of hishigh social position, and the belief that this gave him authenticsources of information not available to others.Here aresome tips to help you maintain thedelicate balance between work and family.Its métier is biography,narrative and topicalhistory, description of contemporary society,and every field open to themedium of type.Thesame hostility that long persisted in the English Parliament,Godkin found in Hungary during the revolutionary period.This improvement in the general standard of the editorial hasin part been made possible by the great extension of the newspaper plant.Punch 52 has now become a boy scoutand his activities are unified vicariously through the regular press.The stolen interview enters the domain of ethics, but on theside of history its value may be unimpeachable.

Not only are his own government and his own newspaper concerned as well as the foreign capital where he resides, but he has a19 Diary of the Besieged Resident, pp.Talcott Williams, New York Tribune,October 9, 1915.The activity, energy, andcourage which they occasionally display in the pursuit of information, are truly remarkable.But the appeal wasalso made to discouraging the enemy, shortening the war, andpreventing greater bloodshed.CHAPTER XVAUTHENTICITY OF NEWSPAPERSAuthenticity of newspapers seldom questionedInherent difficulty of forging newspapers.

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Franklin, Fabian,exact thinking,collected by, 274Franklin, Sir John,on newspapers and106; own editorialsrelief expedition, 12.The illustration of a concrete steel company shows a factory in processof construction; asbestos roofing is being laid; sectional furniture is being puttogether; parts of automobiles are being assembled.See, however, Ludwig Salomon, Geschichte des Deutschen Zeitungswesens, 3 vols.Parliament may have been somewhat similarlyamazed.Object of welfare work unimportant to historian.The closing word must be peccavi.Social activities among newsboys.

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Stanley Hall states his experience with the manufactured interviewin the New York Evening Post, September 10, 1910.Stamp duty, newspaper, repealed inEngland, 136.But in the characteristic features ofprominent individuals the illustration is prone to exaggerate.James FordRhodes to convince the rank and file of students of history thatit holds an honorable place in the study of the past.The intimate association of the press with government andwith political parties must warn the historian that he can notinvariably accept at face value all that every newspaper printseither for or against the government or the political partytemporarily in power.

The popularity ofjournalism in America has reacted upon most of our magazines so stronglythat they are distinguished from the better daily journals by exclusion ofdetail and modification of method rather than by essential contrast inquality.It was apparently much later that in America the editorial emerged from the news proper as a distinctive feature of the newspaper.In striking contrast to the cartoons of the Great War are the Pictures ofMany Wars as given and described by Frederic Villiers, in a volumepublishedin 1902.Infallibility of the press.Yet itmay be in May or June that the historian ismost anxiousto secure detailed information.The Times reprinted in pamphlet form the allegedParnell letters and its leaders on the subject.

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They realizethat articles without a nameattached to them are often not readand seldom attract notice, but since their object is attained bypublication, this, to such writers, is immaterial.Once inconspicuous in the illustration, represented as dressed like their elders, evidently restrained in their actions, the newspaper now gives children their own illustrated pages, illustrates their own special fashions in dress, in toys, in amusements, in books; it represents the part they take in fashionable society, and shows them everywhere in the limelight.It may be true to say that the newspaperuses the cartoon and the caricature to teach and to influencepublic opinion, while the magazines use various forms of reproduction to entertain their readers and either to illustrate a textor to form a connected story havinga running thread of comment.French law requiring signature.Government industrial and commercial advertising.The historian must recognize these limitations and he mustuse the caricature as itself a record of the existenceof this temperin contemporary life, but without accepting it at its facevalue.Their lives were extended andtheir usefulness increased by judicious copying.

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The historian looks to the dramatic critic to give him informing criticism on those points rather than a review of the play asliterature, yet it is in all of these matters that he will as a rulefind dramatic criticism lacking and he will be unable to disentangle pure criticism from the confusing questions of complimentary and purchased tickets, reporter playwrights, theatrical advertising, the possibility of perverted morals and questionable taste on the part of the audience, good acting spoiled byinadequate stage setting and admirable stage setting wasted oninartistic acting.Specialists are now sent tointerview specialists and often important information is securedand given publicity.For better and for worse theadvertisement unconsciously records our imperfections as wellas our highest attainments; our sordid motives and our spiritualaspirations; our criminal tendencies and our conscientious lives.It was in 1916 that a widespread appeal began to be madethrough advertisements as a means of influencing public opinion,especially in regard to industrial conditions.The Times, ranging from 1793 to 1821.Frankenberg, Essentials in Journalism, pp.

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See also Critic; Criticism, literary.The architectwho plans a house does not give and can not be expected to givehis working plans to the passerby who may admire the resultswithout understanding or even questioning themethods by whichthey have been achieved.It is earnestly requested that no flowers be sent, but that those who so desiremake a donationin memory of the deceased to the Montefiore Home for Aged and InfirmHebrews or to similar institutions.The advertiser and criticism.The change from a desperate pitched battle of a few hours to aprolonged contest extending over weeks in the same localitymakes it impossible to appreciate changes in situation.Bell, Moberly, cited, 255.Advertisements unless ordered for a definite timewill be continued until ordered out.

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In consequence of what thecounsel had said on the report in question, in which a fact ofreferspaper, which was involved, in question, hence of whatWhensome importance was involved, Lord Kenyon desired to see thenewspaper, which was handed to him.Republicanparty a permanent organization of trained publicity experts who will for thefirst time apply to politics the samemerchandizing principles that are appliedto successful business enterprises.These illustrations have been taken from New York dailies, but they aretypical of the appeals found in other metropolitan papers.Display advertisements werekept running in 1500 newspapersandspread on myriads ofbillboards.Special times of crises at home andabroad, like Parliamentary reform bills, political and industrialrevolutions, the Crimean War, the Civil War, and similar eventshave all given an impetus to the circulation of the press, and itsinfluence has not stopped with the consideration of the newsthat gives it its increased circulation.

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More than one eminent special correspondent has succumbed tothe insidious allurements of social life and his work has therebybecome dogmatic in temper, superficial in its interpretations, andlacking in vigor of expression.The literature of caricature is extensive.Market reports, 11; newspaper mottoesand, 45; their accuracy disclaimed bymany papers, 83.The illustration as now used in connection with the advertisement often purposely varies from the article nominally illustrated.Heard, Curiosities of the Law Reporters, 1871.

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LesliexxüCanning and Jerdan.But later the department of labor carried anadvertisement urging all to advertise who had anything tosell.Often contributors claim that certain fields andsubjects belong to them and that the editor should not allowothers to poach on their preserves.In times of political crises, in places whereno newspaper press has been available, the broadside has reasonably well met the need.Jorum of Punch, pp.The establishment of Kladderadatsch was almost coincident with theappearance of Bismarck in public life.

Johnson, I, Appendix A, pp.Avoidaccuracy, and cook the speeches.New York Tribune, November 8, 1916.There has recently been an extraordinary increase in America in the number of newspapers and other periodicals published by or in the interests of labor and industry.In all of these changeshe finds records of an awakened business conscience and ofhigherstandards ofbusiness and of newspaper morality.Germanywas not hindering newspaper men in their expression of opinion.Revue des Deux Mondes, June,1916.

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Limit the number of activities and responsibilitiesyou take on.Two provisions in the will of Dr.The question of the signed article in a periodical that aims topresent all sides of disputed subjects is very different from thesame question as it is presented to an organ of a particularpolitical faith like the National Review.Yes, of all ranks, and all religions.But when they have given their all, even their fame,servants whose whole life has been spent in the service of thesame family.

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Early journals for troops.Everything was admissibleso long as it appeared in someaccredited journal.Change of name may be an interesting illustration of the personality of a newspaper.The side to be presented by the editorial wasalmost a foregone conclusion, while rallies had been most expensive and they had been attended only by the partisans of theparty arranging them.This lack of enthusiastic support of the idea of an endowedpress must be in part explained by the inherent difficulties in theway of carrying it out.Intime of peace, the ebb and flow of the tide brings again specialcorrespondence into the more important place, and its variousbranches are distinctly classified.

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ArchibaldForbes, Memories and Studies of War and Peace, pp.Changing standards of conventionality affect the personalityof a newspaper.Comoundouros is buying up all the correspondents he can, and oneof his emissaries told me two or three days ago that if I would help himout I could pocket 20, 000 francs.The air has likewise contributed its quota of prodigies.Fleet Street journalists, 154.

Boyle, Frederick, expelled from Russia,186.The facts may often beprecisely the reverse, but in a small community the rhetoricaldescriptions deceive no one and presumably will not misleadthe future historian.It was significant that national political advertising in 1920was much less extensive than it had been during the precedingpresidential campaign, significant in that the result of the election seemed a foregone conclusion and advertising thereforeunnecessary for both of the two great parties.Ambler, Thomas Ritchie, pp.The great force wielded by advertising in the hands of anational government is best summed up in a statement of theindispensable aid it rendered the British government during theJune;war.

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Correspondence of the Associated Press, New York Times,August 6, 1916.The press, the college, the school, the church, and every institutionis open to the charge of failing to attain the ideals of its mostintelligent and most honorable representatives, but it is anothermatter to bring the indiscriminate charge that all members ofthese or other institutions are wilfully negligent of their dutiesand ever ready to sacrifice honor to gain.The charge that inaccurate, sensational, and exaggeratednews is sent out is equally incredible.Leach, Fleet Streetfrom Within, chap.They display by graphic illustration andindicate by figures the percentage of increase in their advertisements over their own best previous record and over the bestrecords of their competitors; they publish the aggregate numberof advertising lines, columns, and pages printed in a year, andgive the total number of columns carried in a single number,in one case, 609 columns in the issue of September 22, 1919.Jebb finds to be the oracles ofancient days.The inquiry on which the Report wasbased showed conclusively the existence of two radically differentideas in regard to the use to be served by parliamentary reports.

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In college journalism the Daily Princetonian was calledthe Printsanything, and the Harvard Crimson was dubbed theCrimesown by the rival comic papers of Princeton and Harvard.It is needlessto say that it was not intended by The New Republic as a reflection in anyway upon the official or personal conduct of Mr.The fundamentals of successful interviewing go down to the roots of human nature; its complex difficultiescan be solved only by those that are willing to study life with enthusiastic and unflagging zeal.Themain points, as he outlined it, were that the Governmentshould choose every year a certain number of skilled reporters with amilitary trend, who were to be officially accredited to staff headquartersduring manoeuvres.Weekly, December 21, 1912.

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War and the countries involved became familiar in England, and incidentally they perhaps led to the first regular Englishnewspaper.Thegreater its success in advocating this cause the more inevitably it ultimately declined.The German General Staff announced that no correspondent, artist,or photographer would be in future allowed at the German frontier.Once I tried the experiment of saying the opposite of what I meant, and next day itcame out all right.Newspaper correspondence had anauthority and interest in the time of Junius which it no longerpossesses, and the Miscellaneous Letters derive a value from theillustration they afford of this antecedent phase of journalism.They cover the period from 1893 to about 1901.

Material often contributed by prominentmen.But there are dangers lurking in it, especially to thepreacher himself.The press has everywhere been a potent witness to the transformation wrought through war in industrial society.Governments have sometimescompelled signature in order to regulate and therefore to weakenthe authority of the press.Jews and the Freemasons to support Bolshevism.

Eggleston, Recollections of a Varied Life, pp.History is the record of things accomplished.Buequo, chePoronitantinople, and other letters certifie, that she greaeTurke, will goeinco Polonla with owland men, andwill rend 100.Its name coming from thesimultaneous discharge of guns on one side of a ship of war, thebroadside focuses attention on a single item of news or information and it conveys it in impressive form.The head of such a business has an enormous power in his hands, but we can not recollectthat it was ever used to further individual views or policies.Several of these news agencies started by different newspapers sprangup during the war.They advertise their own supremacy as advertisingmediums and the extravagant claims of some are kept in checkonly by the sworn statements of audit bureaus of circulations.

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But even this statementcan not pass unchallenged.To attribute the suppression of the newsto malicious design on the part of the press as a whole is to charge the press withsuicidal intent.The Independent discussed the report that three prominent dramaticcritics had been retired from three New York papers at the instigation of thetheatrical syndicate.Advertisements in the daily press, May 1, 1915.The Spectator itself says, No.

The Monthly Reviewers are duller men, and are glad to read the booksthrough.CHAPTER IXTHE WAR CORRESPONDENTEarly war correspondence.Lots of info about the internetand women in general.Red Cross movement, or a newtuberculosis hospital, or some local charity all throw side lightson the personality of the newspaper.Some of these effortshave taken the form of proposed or enacted legislation.New York Tribune, June 12, 1915.Of this advantage he was too good a judge of his own interest not toavail himself.

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Daily press, November 21, 1916.President Krüger anent theJameson raid.Explanation seen in government relation to press.It is true that thepress may claim accuracy for itself, but in the very nature ofthings it is and must be inaccurate.In a sparsely settled country, where there is little to break11 New York Times, October 2, 1914.Many English products, as soaps, teas, sauces, jams and marmalades,are widely advertised in America, as are French mineral waters, perfumes,and toilet articles.Bleyer, The Profession of Journalism, pp.

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The press is thus limited byits own desire for news.France, Anatole, quoted, 287.It is a plain fact that the public at present takes less and less interestevery year in either foreign or war correspondence.See Special correspondent.The historian isoften confronted not only by an apparent lack of standards ofcriticism but he is also often met by a positive disbelief in thevalue of standards on the part of critics themselves.

Henry Layard of his success in securing the support of theEnglish and European press for Sir Stratford Canning in hispolicy as the ambassador of Great Britain at Constantinople.The illustration as found in the daily paper and in the periodicalis of great variety, including initial letters, tail pieces, vignettes,24 These conclusions have been largely drawn from an examination ofseveral collections of illustrative war material, but they are the same thathave been drawn by many others.Illustration enlarges horizonGlimpses of luxury.In the last analysis, it is always thecritic, rather than the author, whose authority is paramount inthe mind of the contemporaneous general reader, but not in themind of the historian.We getmore matter published forindustries and against radicalism, or socialist schemes that areagainst private ownership, than any publicity organization inthe West.

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Even editors themselves are not immune from the blue pencil.Whitty are entitled St.Literature must alwaysemphasize the artistic side of writing and transcends rules,while journalism is controlled by the space at command and byunwritten laws.Every day the Parliamentary reports of speeches present them in amore effective form than the hearer was sensible of during the delivery.The press groups society and unifies groups.

The realextent of this state of misinformation is known only to those whoare in situations to confront facts within their knowledge with thelies of the day.It by no means follows that these tendencies make the pressof any less value to the historian.Labor journals, number of, 26.French, and German newspapers.The Bureau then tells You when the list is returned what are the desiredgifts.Holyoake inquired concerning the characteristics of the speakers,manner of mind, peculiarities of expression, antecedents and family, public service and other particulars.

They will besupplanted altogether by the daily newspaper.New York Evening Post, January 6, 1911.If the comparison has resulted inerror, it is difficult for themember misreported to set himself rightand to disabuse the public of the belief that if all reports agree,they must be correct and the member wrong.Meister,Die deutsche Presse im Kriege und später, pp.Times containing false or misleading information.

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This day so Arminian preacher who apparelledlikca loul.It must rest with the historian to separate thewriter from his work and to give to the one his due meed for hisself.Daily press, October, 1920.Book reviews, II, Chap.The endowed newspaper would not in and ofitself remove the evils arising from press competition.

Atkins, The Life of Sir William Howard Russell, II, 388.Goldwin Smith on,tographs; Sketches.Cornell University, course in jour.Life Extension Institute, 353.Frisco, Rio, Orleans, and numerousother syncopated words were all laid at its door.Tournalism of the trench.

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Russell since the real importance of his letters from thefront lay less in his descriptions of battles than in his accounts of camp andhospital conditions and in the effect that these descriptions had at home.XxxviiiDemand of historian for authoritative materialStandards of authoritativeness for other classesNo standard of authoritativeness for the pressSkepticism in regard to credibility of the pressReasons for skepticism.That this, too, is understood by the writersfor the press is evident from the explicit directions given in alltechnical works on journalism for the composition and arrangement of headlines.With the Victorious Bulgarians, chap.Earle of Mansfield will lay his campe berweene, croupescogerher, and many reſortvaro chemi, co udcibom.Historians and reporters suffer alike from these official denials ofinformation given interviewers, and it is difficult for them tounderstand the reason for deliberate falsification since in the endthe truth will be known.On theother hand, as it was the custom for English political journaliststo write anonymously, it might be well if they continued to do so,in order to preserve the power and authority of their press.

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Frith, JohnLeech, 2 vols.Nicknames given to newspapersNicknames given by newspapers.Hemay even have aresponsibility towards the citizens of the country where hetemporarily resides.The Times andthe effect of their disclosures on the English people.In 1851 he established himself in England andbecame a naturalized British citizen.

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The Southern Commercial Congress in 1917 urged a wide publicity campaign through the press in the interests of the South.Pray tell me if you can discover it.The Board of Trustees have authorized the Faculty to appoint toScholarships a number of young men intending to make practical printingand journalism their business in life.Circulation of editorials through other means.New YorkTribune, June 16, 1916.

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At the last moment, it wasevident that Harrison had been defeated and the cartoon waschanged by retouching the face of Cleveland and giving him aHarrison beard, putting a patch over the eye of the Republicanelephant, and changing legends.Thedrawing is there reproduced.The conductors will provide for themselves the works whichthey may select for criticism.Disadvantage of his social importance.It is from schools and colleges that come themost severe criticismsofeducational systems.Often the reporter is not present at theevents he describes and hence draws on his imagination for thedetails needed and thereby again falls into error.

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With equal clearness the illustration shows the dividing line between those who take their amusements vicariously, as in the views of opera houses with capacity audiences, and those who find their recreations in active participation with others in community singing and in other forms of collective activity.Henry James on the interview.Stewart, General, at Khartoum, 393.This is only stating that thepress is a part of a most complex organization and that it can notbe singled out either by itself as suffering peculiar hardships byreason of its limitations or by others as yielding to temptationsunknown in other occupations.The chief virtue of theheadline from the point of view of the pressitself is not, indeed, accuracy, but ability to catch the attentionof the reader; it is affected by the conditions under which it isread, and it is in part explained by the physical conditions of itsreaders; it is read in the subway or on the elevated road, probably by readers standing in an uncomfortable position after awearying day; the evening edition has headlines in larger typeand in blacker ink than those of the morning edition of the samepaper.The Oregonian is a newspaper whose function is discussion, as it thinks fit and deems just, of all subjects presented for consideration in the active life of our people even the claims of dogmatic theology, on occasion.

College, it wasgiven during the vacation when not a student could have heardit, and the lecturer said exactly the opposite of what a personwho did not hear him reported on hearsay had been said.Bleackley, Life of John Wilkes, pp.Government widely advertised for army and navy recruits.Changing character of advertising.As personal ownership of newspapers has been superseded bycorporate ownership, the place of the editor becomes more andmore conventional; as the personal owner continues to be theeditor, he tends to consider more than formerly the commercialinterests of his paper.

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In the hundredand more years that have passed since these judgments weregiven, men in public life have expressed opinions no more favorable to the veracity of the press.From an unidentified periodical.With change of names and dates, the troubles between editorsand contributors suggested by the history of the EdinburghReview are those found everywhere in the periodical press.Justin McCarthy had more than one tryingexperience in attempting to report for a provincial paper.Must then the student of the periodical press sit idly down andsay that as regards criticism it availeth not for the purposes ofthe historian?

Another long controversy ensued over the question of whetherBrougham or Macaulay should write an article on Chatham forthe Edinburgh.The illustration is the most conspicuous feature of the pressthat suggests present or past conditions and it is of special valueas an interpretative record.Disadvantages of collecting newspaper articles into book104.The advertisements of others lay baretheir difficulties and disclose their methods of dealing withstrikes.They are formedto collect and to distribute news and all their members receiveas much as or little news as they wish and as they pay for.Beuve with the elevation and insightand sense of unity of an Emerson.

The advertisement records the high price of living and alsothemeans used to combat it, 63 and the sameantiphonal characteris seen in the advertisements for and against the use ofarticles ofconsumption.Different forms of news collecting agencies.It must also be remembered that conditions in apoor, backward community can also be in part reconstructedfrom what the paper does not contain as well as from what itpublishes.The difficulties of the recent period are still too much in theforeground to have been as yet adequately dealt with by allthe conflicting interests involved.Whitelaw Reid on training journalists.Many of thegreat dailies retain a permanent staff of from ten to twentymen.

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Sundayservices, and the columns given to church music.Christian Science Monitor, November 26, 1917.Gillam drew for Judge a cartoon tobe used in anticipation of the expected victory of Harrison overCleveland.Yet with each recurringconflict between warring nations he finds a place and his lettersappear in the daily press.Beneath was a quotation attributed to Mr.The review has been discredited because in the hands of someof the most famous reviewers it has been made the instrumentof exploiting the superior knowledge of the reviewer.Weekly who resigned in 1912 stated that it wasbecause the advertising manager had had too much to say concerning theeditorial policy of the publication.

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HOW THE MONEY WAS DIVIDEDNewspapers.Spectra, ostensibly written byEmanuel Morgan and Anne Knish, but in reality a satire on futurists andcubists written by Witter Bynner and Arthur Davison Ficke.Elk Location MapsQuestions, Comments or Ideas?The Imperial Government of Germany conveyed information through advertisements placed in the most prominentnewspapers of America warning all travelers that those sailingin the war zone on ships flying the flag of Great Britain, or anyof her allies, did so at their own risk, 41 and it thereby considereditself absolved from all further responsibility.Details are elaborated, and unnecessary featuresare enlarged upon; the errors of the special correspondent are notso much those of commission and omission as they are those of anapparent lack of a sense of proportion.Prohibition and liquor in advertisements.In this intensity of its concern with the present,the school of journalism might well take counsel of the modernwriters of advertisements who recognize the strength of theappeal to the past, writers who have apparently been trainedfor their work through their studies in psychology rather than inschools of journalism.

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The Alien and Sedition Acts and the editorial.Francis gives from the Daily Express, June 6, 1900, a list of thirtyseven war correspondents who had suffered in the South African War.It is probably not consciously either doctored or colored, its errors are reduced to a minimum, and the faked interview has no reputable sup porters.Evening, 47:Evening Chronicle, Manchester, Eng.No man connected with the Review, none even ofits founders, has ever claimed an exclusive right over any particular province.In the finalanalysis, it is not what direct information the newspaper gives,but what the newspaper is, that determines its authoritativenessin the eyes of the historian.

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ICI Casing complexityIncreasingcomplexity ofof thethe presspress.The French talk of the brutalité des journauxanglais.Goethe, Carlyle on, 288; Arnold on, 304.Arguments for and against proposed legislation have been widelycirculated through newspaper advertisements and they haveoften proved distinctly serviceable in presenting facts to a heedless, ignorant, or prejudiced public.The newspaper may have a personality characterized by anarrow provincialism or sectionalism that merges into jealousy.Government against all printed periodicals.The Bible in Spain, chap.

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DE LA FAYE, Charles, fl.The better the acquaintance with America,the more defenceless and more inexcusable such conduct is.But since the worksof art themselves remain, the defects of art criticism must givethe historian less difficulty than do those of dramatic criticism.But it is interesting to note that this relationship between thepress and welfare work is apparently not reciprocal.Muſquercers, to ſend to the Vnited Princes.It is all good for me.Cortissoz,Life of Whitelaw Reid, I, 159.

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The high cost of living.Rushmore, have given untiring help in the collection of material.The charge thatthe enemy profits by the excessive zeal of war correspondentshas been so repeatedly made that it especially can not be dismissed without examination.These appealshave been specially numerous at Thanksgiving and at Christmas.Even if the news receivedfromthe source is free from suspicion, the press itself maydistort it by partial omissions, pervert its meaning by the useof exaggerated headlines, and embroider simple facts beyondrecognition.The Social Criticism of Literature,pp.

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The press is the limelight that illumines,as do no other sources, the hardships of frontier life as well asthe courage with which they are met.Napier, and, 281, 282, 283; Crokerand, 296; Goldwin Smith on, 299;Stenhen and 200.Graphic representation is usually confinedto the weekly, monthly, or quarterly periodicals, although occasionally it is found in the daily paper.Turkish war I went far to make somethinglike a real science of the prompt forwarding of war correspondence.In the discussion of every subject, anintroduction to the study of it would qualify reporters to discussit more intelligently and thus reduce the probable area of errancy.It is the part of the historian in his use of the newspaper to weigh the influences behind the editorial and to measureits importance in his own work.

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It was considered noteworthy that the Boston DailyAdvertiser in the time of Nathan Hale had command of a complete file of the London Times and of other important English,89 Many editorials have been collected by different journals and publishedcollectively: Essays from the London Times, 2 vols.Accepting the truth of this dictum, it must follow that instincts implanted in human nature will always find some channel through which they can be satisfied.The specific adverse criticism has been made that where thepress falls short is, not in failing to give the news, but in failingto report correctly public opinion.The government opposition to war correspondents reachedits climax and new principles were introduced into their mutualrelationships when in August, 1914, war correspondents werebarred by the governments of Belgium, England, France, andThe Editor of The War Correspondence of the Daily News 1870 givesan excellent summary of the hostility of the French government towardswar correspondents and of its unwillingness to authorize the presence ofneutral observers within the lines.Profit and Loss, 48.The German censor cut out both cartoons beforePunch was allowed to circulate in Germany.Government, advocated independence in journalism, was free from personal abuse of hisopponents, and was in every sense of theword themostmodern ofjournalists.

Coffeehouse in Stocks Market, where we usually met to consultmatters.Criticism and social life.Dramatic criticism has seemed to move in ourday in a circle; the criticismof poetry and fiction seems justnow to be retrograding as the public taste for poetry and fictionhas grown less refined.Under endowed or subsidizednewspapers and journals are classed many scientific and scholarlyperiodicals published at the expense of learned societies.Press records library development.

The fact remainsthat much has been done by the press that has served the community irrespective of the ulterior object of the press in rendering the service.Any considerable concessions to these demands would bedistinctly injurious to the essential interests of journalism.The lives and letters of John Murray, and of William Blackwood, are filled with accounts of the almost inevitable misunderstandings and disagreements among the owners, publishers, andeditors of periodicals.The tendency of newscollecting agencies is to standardize the news; the tendency ofchains of papers and of press syndicates is to standardize theinterpretation of news.Shea on, 305; difference betweenbook review and, 306.The consolidation of two or more newspapers in America has long beena custom and its frequency is evident in the hyphenated names of manypapers.Bliss Perry discusses the relative value of thesigned and the unsigned review, but gives no decision.

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He held that a group of newspapers had the rightto associate for the exchange of news, if no attempt was madeto prevent the formation of rival associations, or to prevent itsown members from getting news from other associations.Gallery was to give every accommodation to the London Press, and to restrict it entirely to theLondon Press.Authors have been far from agreeing in regard to the desirability of criticism.Pennsylvania paper, or themission belfreythat belongs appropriately to the Daily News of Santa Barbara,and a view of the surf to the Santa Cruz Surf.In reality, the Associated Press had sent more than 93, 000words concerning it to the New York press and about sixty columns inregard to it were printed.With all the discordant elements in the press today there is a courtesy evident that was often lamentably lackingin the press of an earlier date.

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The Life of Sir James Fitzjames Stephen, pp.Thehistorian must understand the possible limitations for his purposes of the newspaper that has a daily circulation of half amillion copies; he may find that the newspaper of restrictedcirculation and higher price has for him the greater value.Differences in caricature of eighteenth and of nineteenth centuries.Almost the entire worth of a piece of informationdepends upon the person who furnishes it.La nuit porte conseil.It has been seen that the press is handicapped by many conditions.

Hindenburg, von, cartoonists ignorantof, 399.Now sing, my Muse, what various parts composeThese rival sheets of politics and prose.In her intercourse with foreign nationsmay she always be in the right; but our country, right or wrong.He is the person before whom the publisher cowers and whom he tries toplease, and the advertiser is very indifferent about the opinions of a newspaper.Seein Gaul, 3; first modern war coralso Caricatures; Illustrations.

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Government advertisements had been inserted in some favoredIrish papers two years and seven months after the transactionsto which they related had been settled and he moved for a returnof the amount of all sumspaid to different English newspapers foradvertisements of all descriptions from public offices.Malta Times, Layard on, 189.Steed of The Times.Lowes has so convincingly shown in Convention andRevolt in Poetry.The disagreements between publishers and compositors in October,1919, led to the issuing of various weeklies by entirely different methods.Laws are cited in advertisements showing that banks are permitted to act as executors, administrators, guardians, andtestamentary trustees.It was undoubtedly with peculiar pleasure that the London Nation,of October 12, 1918, printed a selection in fulsome praise of Emperor Williamfrom the Daily Mail of June 20, 1910.

Benjamin Franklin deliberately entertained his readers withhis own literary efforts, in preference to stale news from Hungaryor Poland.The New England town meeting andthe intermissions between sabbath services were favorable timesfor learning of the events that concerned absent neighbors.Other difficulties between editors and contributors.Proceſſion made, aod all the inha.Once considered beneath the dignity of an artist ofstanding to have his work appear in a daily newspaper, famousartists are now represented in all the great dailies and otherperiodicals not only in cartoons but also in the advertising pages.It rents assembly halls and provides free lectures for citizens4 Survey, November 3, 1917, 39: 124.

The form the illustration is to take necessarily varies with timeand place.An abiding sense of appreciation for such kindnesses must remain with every one who has had similar opportunities.The tendency towards signature and away from anonymity hasevidently been to weaken the personality of the press, but it isless clear how far this weakening of personality has affected theauthoritativeness of the press.The elaborate36 In Belgium, only Belgian journalists were permitted to enter or toremain in the country; no war correspondents were allowed with the Britishor the French forces; in Germany, the war correspondent was forbidden,but the General Staff gave out news.Russell, The Great Warwith Russia: A Personal Retrospect.Distrust of press inevitable with increasing development.Early efforts to secure honest advertising.

Appeal to working conditions.General effect of connection between press and governmental partiesRelation between press and Church.The enthusiasm felt to be noticeably lacking in the reality wasabundantly supplied by some of the press correspondents.The reporter as he is and as he is believed to be.Mecke:alſo be muſtered above Carel.The controlling desire of a greatmodern newspaper is to give its readersthe news, and the news therefore may show progressive action,the breaking of precedents, the activities of great organizationsformed to uphold righteousness and peace.Brien,The Story of the Sun, pp.

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This seems a somewhat depressing situation into which the reporter has brought the press, yet it is after all not so hopeless.Peel, Robert, letter to Sterling, quoted,88; corn laws repealed by, 269.Relation of historian to advertisements.Richmond, Social Diagnosis, pp.Everywhere and at all times there has been this distrustand it has been manifested alike by governments that haveattempted to suppress, to regulate, and to control the press, andby its increasing millions of readers who have had no share in theproduction or the distribution of the news, who have passivelybut their badness and ignobleness are beyond belief.

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Presents cool women on the Web withtheir own personal homepage.In the 1247 numbers of the four publications, nearly 30 Latin authors are represented in the mottoes and about adozen Greek authors, while only six mottoes are cited from English writers.Dawson, German Life in Town and Country, chap.National prejudices doubtless account for much of the repugnance expressed for the interview.Allpanaceas applied to the press are as futile as are the patentmedicines denounced in its columns.

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Our American newspapers were offenders in thisdirection before the war, and war conditions have led to a further deterioration in quality.Easter, is perhaps better answered bythe illustration and by the advertisement than it is by the Church,and sectional differences may be seen in the much greater influence of Easter on the illustrations and advertisements in theNew York than in the Boston press.Errors due to jesting.New York State legislature, April, 1915,to prevent the intimidation of dramatic critics by making it a misdemeanorto exclude any person froma theater without cause.It thus often shows the effectof haste and speed with a resulting tendency to expend itselfon the localand ephemeral.This has been suggested by Burges Johnson from the experiences ofLester Ralph, who was illustrating the Boer War for the Illustrated LondonNews.He can convey an impression which the writers of ponderousleaders are endeavouring to avoid.

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The names of Bennett, Bowles, Bryant, Buckingham, Dana, Garrison, Greeley, Raymond, suggest a period when a man acquired a newspaper and it became his personal organ.The press plays an important part in the conduct of politicalparties and in all political campaigns, and at various times it hasaccepted, if it has not openly sought, the rewards of such politicalservice.Glasgow Herald, advertisements refusedby, 370.It sometimes goes even farther than this and gives itsreaders a guarantee that all goods advertised in its columns arewhat they purport to be; if they are found to be otherwise thanas advertised, the newspaper will itself refund the money paidif the advertiser does not do so.Lord Palmerston advo7, Aberdeen favored peace.William Jerdan describes the difficulties of parliamentaryreporting when the work was ill organized, there were no conveniences, no telegraph, no opportunities, but many obstacles andmuch disfavor.After they have devoted their anonymouslabour to the common task, year after year, is the bread of theirold age assured them?

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The Swedishpress bureau was proprietary, in the hands of a single individual.An examination of the illustratedpapers extending over a series of years shows the ingenuity usedin combining the illustration with the advertisement and itsin every field of business enterprise; both advertisement and illustration take advantage of current interests andprofit by them.The newspaper press undertakes welfare work among its ownemployees and establishes lunch rooms, rest rooms, and smokingrooms; it installs shower baths for stereotyping and press roomemployees, and the most recent machinery for securing perfectventilation; it encourages and contributes to benefit associationsorganized by its employees.Hemay or may not have creative ability.Kipling, in answer to a request for a contribution, is given in The Budget, published by the Horsmonden School,Kent, and a caricature of Kipling by Max Beerbohm.

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The prevailing feeling, often however contradicted, that the relative position of children in society has changed, finds confirmation in the illustration.The letters are in the British Museum.But the press has not always refused proffered letters fromroyalcorrespondents even when made with a view to influencingopinion.War, then in progress on the Continent.Identification of editor with community.Hewrote those Debates with more velocity than any other of hisproductions; often three columns of the Magazine within thehour.Les Meurs et la caricature enAllemagne he gives a bibliography of journals of caricature, pp.

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See also Party journalism.The value of economic study is conceded,but for the most part the school of journalism seems contentedwith conventional economic theories past and present and makeslittle effort to show their inadequacy in the present industrialorder.The Mercury especially was an index ofopinion and so vivid is its daily chronicle of events that thehistorian is able to put himself in the place of those ardent SouthCarolinians and understand their point of view.Magazine and of its rival the LondonMagazine, especially from November, 1740, to November, 1743,when Dr.States, and by the chiefe Cbsuocelor, weremuch commco.

Ministries, drives financiers to suicide, cements or disrupts international alliances, beats open the doors of the ThéâtreFrançais for ambitious vaudeville artists, and has writers andpainters eating out of his hand.Notes and Queries, June 1, 1912, IIS,5: 432.New Republic, June 10, 1916,7: 147.Souldiers 3 monethsble us muchpoy: is the rocane ciec the Huogaciems daily skirmach wielaThe 6 of June at Fperies there all on affereblle behof ourmen, ond it is ſayd chat Boblem at Corchew prepares aden without doubt, becaule Berblen Gabor in deforous co greu Areogth to releiurNewbeufel, and tha: SerfobyGeorgeknow of the Nobilutic there ſmall relolucion, whether theywillhold with him or not sitt is thoughe, that she is of lune!As a businessenterprise it has the temptations of other forms of business,but it can not be said that these temptations are those of whatis usually denominated a capitalistic industry.

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This study by de la Sizeranne bears out the contention of the New YorkEvening Post that caricature in Europe is a matter of personalities, inAmerica a matter of symbols.The modern newspaper literally has its fingers reaching outtoward every quarter of the globe, and every finger is sensitive, andevery nerve brings back the treasures of the intellectual wealth thatare stored up there, and a photograph of the occurrences of life thatare there taking place.He has written much of his personal experiences,his thrilling adventures, his hairbreadth escapes, his physicaldiscomforts, the seizure of his papers, the loss of his camera, thebreaking down of his motor car, and his arrest as a spy, but heoften has seemed to write little in regard to the war.Reconstruction through foreign language pressThe illustrated advertisement.The most dangerous influences at work against the art of the futureare the comic supplements of the Sunday papers.Our own war with Spain seemed to be waged by and for the newspapers.She published in Washington the first number of Paul Pry, December 3,1831, and the last number November 19, 1836.

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Publicity is of the essence of successful journalism.Audit bureaus ofcirculations must guarantee circulation and the best advertisersdemand in addition a circulation among the classes in society andin business that they desire to reach.CHAPTER XIICRITICISM AND THE CRITICDifficulty in using criticism as historical material.The compromise experiment was tried by The Unpopular Reviewof withholding the names of authors until the succeeding number,but after a trial of somewhat more than five years it was abandoned in favor of immediate signature.Liberty bonds, advertisements of, 342.Editor upon any particular question, as to discover what, according to his judgment, is the prevailing opinionof the public upon that question.Assyrian expedition, sent out byDaily Telegraph, 13.

Especially have the English correspondents given unstinted praiseto the Australians, Canadians, Irish, Scotch, Welsh, and to all troopscoming from the different parts of the British Empire.Headlines and the historian.What can the war correspondent do?Saloon League; and they used the advertisement as propaganda to promote in every way their privatebusiness interests.Century Magazine, interview announcedin, 236.And drunk delight of battle with my peers,Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy.

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Differences between journalism and literature.Saunders inquired when I should like to come to their back parlour,and write the notes.Massingham who discussesthe theory that the editor may disappear as the news side of the paper ismore and more developed.Schulte, Friedrich von, on Germanbureaucracy, 260.In those daysevery Morning Paper, as an essential retainer to its establishment,kept an author, who was bound to furnish daily a quantum ofwitty paragraphs.

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Central Hudson Gas and Electric Co.History of the People ofthe United States from the Revolution to the Civil War, the newspaper has become a familiar historical source, although itslegitimacy as such does not even yet pass unquestioned.Thompson, Memoir of David Hale, pp.Combinations and recombinations, progress and reaction, dangerous tendencies and constructive policies, vision andcreative imagination, sordid aims and crass ignorance, have atall times been characteristic features of the newspaper in theabstract, although never all found in concrete form in any singlepaper or group of papers.TheHistory of the Nineteenth Century in Caricature, pp.The Army and Navy Gazette, February 11, 1899.Relation of historian to newspaper distribution.

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Cleaveland, Moses, citynamed inColored supplement.The newspaper editor writes in the sand when the flood is coming in.Revue des Deux Mondes, September 15, 1906, Per.THE ULSTER COUNTY GAZETTE.One of the most marked changes noted in the method of dealing withthese letters has been the change that has taken place in the captions underwhichthey are printed.

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In the continuous effort to understand public questions,Arnold was himself guided by the spirit and method he hadacquired through his Roman History research.Concern of historian with these questions.Gallery in the House of Commons.Dooley, Mark Twain and Lowell, Nast, and the galaxy of Punchhumorists have all been teachers and with more or less seriousnessof purpose have attempted through humor of pen or pencil toconvey truths unacceptable in other form.But while it shows the pitfalls the historian must encounter in his use of the newspaper, it may also incidentally indicate how unnecessary has been the alarm constantly raised through the blanket arraignment of the press, and how inherent are the dangers found in the general statement.Itseems reasonable, therefore, to connect the source of errors in thepress with the causes giving rise to them and to apply a remedyto suit the case.Lack of sanitation kills its thousands.

This internal spirit of a paper is often perfectly reflected by itsexternal appearance.Both extremes are abnormal, the illustration faithfullydepicts each class, but each from oppositemotives.It is thus evident that the newspaper always contains certainfeatures permanent as regards the source from which they arederived.On quitting school Iboldly undertook to write and relate thewars.The banking house and the insurance company make theirappeal to authority and to precedent, to evidence of law and tocourt decisions, to guarantees of safety and security.Macaulay wasperhaps less sensitive; at all events, he wrote to Napier that hequite approved the alterations Napier had made in his articleon Mackintosh.

Dock Dial, The, 49.Thus the original texts arepreserved and they show, by comparison with later collectededitions, the many variations through which poems and essaysoften pass after their first publication.The man who writes about himself and his own time is the onlyman who writes about all people and about all time.William Jerdan, Autobiography, IV, 68.It seems as if the desire to put astory into a headline practically eliminates all parts of speechexcept the noun and the verb.There are many speakersin Parliament who would suffer in public estimation if their repetitions andeccentricities of expression were recorded.Samuel Whittaker, Parliamentary Reporting in England, Foreign Countries, and the Colonies, Manchester, 1877.

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Theinterest in the news secured from all of these and similar sourcesis the interest that attaches to individuals.Paris, London, and the Lakes ofKillarney.Couper, in The Edinburgh Periodical Press, I, chap.New York Nation once noted that the Saturday Reviewat first intended to have as writers, not professional journalists, but university scholars, lawyers, clergymen and others of similar tastes and qualifications.An important editorial in the Outlook condemned a prominent New Yorkdaily for dismissing its eminent dramatic critic at the instigation of its theateradvertisers.Long, New York Evening Post, June 21, 1918.

Jackson, Andrew, editors rewarded by,260.Do the advertisements of great establishments ignore strikesand all labor troubles?Whittingham, Charles, paper startedby, 440.Got a good URL for Women, let us knowClickHereWeadded these sites listed belowbut have not had time to check them all out.Macaulay do an article on Lord Chatham,was nothing out of the way.Frontier conditions in the press.New York Tribune, August 26, October 12, 1917.

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Some of the early country editors were pamphleteers rather thaneditors.The advertisement has developedfrom the mere simple announcement of articles lost, apprenticesdisappeared, and auctions to take place, into elaborate publicityagencies covering every field of human endeavor.Blaine for thepresidency, the Independents supported Cleveland.How this was regarded by contributors is indicated in a9801The4 Greville iMemoirs,lency hileVII, 744, July 12, 1853.The Nation and The Athenaeum, March 5, 1921, 28: 767.

The anthracite coal operators explained thedemands of the operatives and their reasons for not grantingthem.Magazine, by William Guthrie, or later by Samuel Johnson.This is in part owing tothe difficulties inherent in such criticism.Announcements made through advertisements.At one time a slight accident occurred in the chemical laboratory of acollege.William Leggett wasmost definite andconcrete in his choice of subjects, but he did not wander fromWashington, Albany, or New York City.Thenature of the accident was described in detail and regret expressedfor the inconvenience caused.

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Courses at the University of Lille.Frankfurter Zeitung, on Wolff Bureau,132.See alsoDooley, Mr.Western Union Telegraph Co.Morning Oregonian, Portland, 253.It was accepted by the Russian military authoritiesand its publication authorized in the Russian papers.

Back Through Seventy Years, I, 424.Complications due to war.All the truth about him is told in thisletter of mine.Since it is essential to the purpose of the book to consider testimony, to weigh evidence, and to arrive at decisions, it is necessary to hear the evidence given by the press itself.These letters to the editor have become a regular feature of theAmerican and the English press and hence are one element intheir personality that differentiates the press of these countriesfrom that of France and other Continental countries.The Nation, September 9, 1880, 31: 185.

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It was at first looked at askance, but it somewhat quickly established itself as an important and useful part of journalism, itcame to be considered the most characteristic feature of Americanjournalism, it was introduced into Europe where it was somewhatcoldly received, and after many ups and downs as well asmanychanges in form and in purpose, it has come to be recognized as aconspicuous, if not an indispensable part of the press, even thoughits function has materially changed.And arc co be roulde by PectusKeerius, dvvelling in the Calverſtrecte,in che uncertainc time.Wilson and Hughes standing near the chair of state.It is used to remind the public that it has a responsibility for the success of business enterprises it has wished tosee undertaken, 65 and at times through the advertisement thepublic is taken into the confidence of great corporations andgiven information, perhaps inadvertently, in regard to the speculative character of business.Ashley, Church Advertising, pp.Sloggs insiststhat Italy was justified in acting as she did.He has,indeed, been charged with circulating rumors, 46 and these makean imposing array.

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On Thanksgiving Day, 1915,approximately twelve hundred clergymen preached in GreaterNew York.Franklinwas for nearly forty years connected in some capacity or otherwith the post office department.Roberts, Lord, 225, 237; requestssocial status of, 154; Croal on, 154;Chesterton on, 154; The Nation on,founding of army paper, 25.This legislation is not as a rule so detailed asis the federal law, but it serves to determine the responsibilityfor the general conduct of a paper and thus it provides a guaranteethat the newspaper on its business side may by law be heldaccountable for its contents.That Johnsonwas the author of the debates during that period was not generally known;but the secret transpired several years afterwards, and was avowed byhimself on the following occasion: Mr.Among the most famous of these forged letters was the oneconcerning Charles Parnell and the London Times.

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Advertisements for promotion of health.But such errors are not those of the official reporterand they must not be charged to his account.The contemptuous attitude of the Duke of Wellington towards the pressis well illustrated in Napier, IV, Appendix VIII B, which gives two letterswritten by the Duke of Feltre, Minister of War, to King Joseph.This will never do!The responsibility for thetidings spread abroad can not be assigned to any single person,but must be divided among several large groups of individuals,and each group in its turn must be resolved into its constituentparts.Hearst are the most conspicuous illustrations of this principle.

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The one lesson which a journalistic training teaches beyond all othersis that of the ultimate invincibility of the truth.TroomA great new Web destination for Young Womenand Girls!Thus the illustration shows the change in fashions of humor as unerringly as itrecords the changes of fashion in material things.Ez fur away ez Payris is.Character of material used.

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It is in the pages of the Fliegende Blätterthat the slow acceptance of this change in Southern Germanymay be noted.New York Times, February 18, 1917.The chief service rendered in the affair by the American press, notably by the New York Evening Post, was to point out their glaringinconsistencies and to pave the way for an examination of their authenticity.Gladstone secured a record in sales are over;and, from whatever combination of causes, we hear no more offamous reviews.Smiles, Memoirs and Correspondence of the Late John Murray, II, 176.Liegers, that lie outThrough all the shires of the kingdom.

Columns and pages of articlesand contributions of every description are signed by the name ofspecial correspondents, and special reporters.The army itself has come to dislike the war correspondent.Elizabeth and the prudence of Burleigh.Why, it asks, if spies are shotfor giving information to the enemy should war correspondentsgive the enemy gratuitous information in regard to the numberand location of troops, strategic plans, food supplies, provisionfor hospitals, or any other matter of warfare?AmericanAssociation of Foreign Language Newspapers; the appeal was published intwo hundred newspapers scattered throughouttheUnited States, April 5, 1915.It was offeredfor sale in October, 1915.

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News letters in the provinces.Cromwell suppressed licensed periodicals in 1655; and stillanother evidence comes from its contents and phraseology.The advertisements of beef extracts illustrate the bouillon cup; of teas,coffees, and of chocolate preparations the different varieties of cups usedwith each.Russell, soonafter his arrival in America, that he had himself created theoffice of Washington correspondent to the New York papers.Constitutional andPolitical Hist.Taxpayers, parents, constitutionalobjectors, and conservatives are all subscribers and advertisers,and they form the numerical majority in every community,what attitude is the press to take?Warsaw, fall of, denied, 423.

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MOORE, Thomaspolitician, editor1802 1856 man of letters, geologist1809 1885?Abgeordneten Fest, or dinner to the Liberal Members to begiven at Cologne and here on Saturday and Sunday.The Plaindealer, January 21, 1837.The publication of an illustration of a biplane schoolwas permitted, withthe understanding that the photographer was not to mention the location ofthe school.The Church indeed has for many years maintained itsown denominational organs that have often been identified byname with the special denomination represented.Unpopular Review, The, experiment of,70.The caricature 26 has always been an instrument of satiric,25 Charts showing weather indications have come to be an important feature.

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Speaker, I Espy Strangers.Advertising is to business what steam is to machinery, the grandpropelling power.Howells and the Atlantic.Certain personssuddenly occupy a position which their previous training has notobviously fitted them to fill, the unusual circumstance calls for aninterview, and the interview concerns itself not with what theofficer has done in the lines of activity with which he is familiarbut with what he purposes to do in an untried field.Again, it has been the interview that has growninto special correspondence, as on the other hand special correspondence leads to the interview.

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They statethe points at issue in cases that have comebefore the courts andgive the court decisions made, together with specific reference tovolume and page where the decisions are recorded; they appealto age, to the high standing, and the distinction of their officersduring their long history.News is themerchandise which it has to sell.For extreme verbal accuracy, which may or may not be avirtue in the eyes of the historian, the advantage lies with the planadopted by Congress; for correct interpretation of spirit, theadvantage lies with the press reports of Parliament.Errors sometimes consciously made.Rankin, on William Winter,326.

Advertisements of charitable causes.The same general schemecould be followed in the case of the navy.Atkins, The Life of Sir William Howard Russell, I, pp.It had not led to halfeither of the evils or of the advantages that its advocates and itsopponents foretold.Pressthan to any other element in the State.Through these influenceshas extended the demand for the daily, and thus the newspaper inever assuming new interests extends the area of its own influence.

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Stemmafolk upon Leutinariſcher Slainer, and Launer hoope that they hall ilrortly be driven frompallages, char che Paſſage upon Prage is vvholy thence Whatlurther isdone beruvixt cham, uvesaken avvay, and this day is coin hecrc in a cerlook for cvery hours to enquire turther thereofwain Perſon that brings tydinghs unto our Ma.Blackburn says that the first weather chart in an English dailypaper was printed in The Times in 1875.State governments responsible for information.Bulgarian censorship did not object to fairy tales passing over the wires, thoughthe way was blocked for exact information.Anything of a personal character is sure to attract attention.Evening Post, August 2, 1915.History of the Nineteenth Century in Caricature, pp.

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Canning, Sir Stratford, 189.This advance into the Free State has costyou a lot of money.Encyclopaedia Britannica, XIX, 550551.But while they may be partially true ofcertain papers at certain times in certain countries, wholesaledenunciations are as false and as pernicious as are the corresponding panegyrics of the press.One of itsstrongest appeals is thus found in this universal, though probablyunconscious, desire to connect the immediate present with aremote antiquity.

If the war correspondent often finds himself in conditionsthat afford himlittle opportunity of writing about warlikematters, it must be remembered that he is not responsible forthese conditions and that he, most of all, may ardently wishthem otherwise than they are.Yet this good nature hasits defenders.Thearticle was the place, and the only place, in which the best newswas given.Importance of contemporary material.The position of the press in regard to all matters of scandal isa troublesome one; if it suppresses news of this character, it seemsat least entitled to the defense always accorded an individual,that a man is innocent until he is proved guilty.Democrat,Charles II, 54.

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Musical criticism in this country has made a steady advance,always a little ahead of the musical education of the public,but constantly gaining in authority and courage as the standardof public appreciation ofmusic has risen.You meant that you would never give him free tickets.Not a dull line in me.Collectively it is a mass of shapeless material that can not bemade amenable to the forces of order and reason.With a mission and without a muzzle.Prage, becaufegiftrat, charbecvvix Sonnevveid and Patronic, the paſſages are every where ſhui.

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In the magazine proper everything goes askew.The campaign carried on by the press itself for honestyin advertising is a clear indication that whatever the limitationsimposed by the advertiser have been in the past these limitationsare on the wane.Latin Sentences at the Head of my Speculations; I do notknow whether I ought not to indulge themwith Translations of each ofthem.France every one had been, was, or was about to be a journalist,and that every politician wrote for the papers.Spielmann notes the Punch à Paris, Berlin Punsch, Munich Punsch, YPunch Cymraeg, Shanghai Punch, Japan Punch, Japanese Punch, ParseePunch, Sydney Punch, Queensland Punch, Mac Punch, and theManx Cat.If themajority of persons can not think of a battle without smoke orof military heroes without a uniform, the artist feels compelledto draw battles showing smoke, although smokeless powder hasbeen used, and to depict soldiers in gay uniform, although uniforms have become sombre and inconspicuous, and soldiers mayfight stripped to the waist.

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New York Tribune, May 17, 1915.The same theory that the public has a right to know how itsbusiness is conducted pervades all classes and is applied to legislative bodies, however small or comparatively unimportant.Advertising was to be thesole medium of the crusade.Personal equation of correspondent.From this verdictthere can be no appeal.

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Whitman stood his ground, not only refusing to write whathe did not believe but declining to refrain from expressing hisstrongly held convictions.Congden, 21 and in this it shares the experience of all other occupationsand professions.Troubles of the editors of the Edinburgh typical.Reinach also deprecatedbelieving that it developed individualism and amour propre andled to exaggeration and scandal, and that the press should encourage anonymity.Bryant kept an index expurgatorius in the office of the EveningPost, solely for office use, and although many of the prohibitedwords and phrases included in it have since passed into reputableusage, it stands as an enduring example of the ideals in languagemaintained by a great editor.Historian must understand personality of periodicals used.Before his deathin 1899 he had transformed his business into a limited liabilitycompany whose operations covered the world, and in February,1915, the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Reuter Telegram Company was celebrated in London.

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The name of a newspaper, like its motto, is often an indicationof its historic, if not of its present personality.Gaskell took umbrage at what she regarded as a reflection on Mr.Development of organization of reporting.Adams and,cized ministry of, 283.It is also evident that whileschools of journalism have everywhere succeeded in spite of theearly opposition to the idea, the endowed newspaper has madelittle or no headway.Familiar as has much of this work become as it has beenconducted by American and European newspapers, it has beenapparently surpassed both in extent and in variety by the welfarework and general community service rendered in Buenos Airesby La Prensa.

As an advertiser do you want your good name associatedwith houses of questionable business repute or merchandising reputation?Importance of guarantees in using the press.The Nation, July 25, 1917, 105: 91.The endowed newspaper has often been urged as a correctiveof the defects found in the press, and such endowment would bein harmony with the tendencies of the day.In strikes the weekly press seems often moredependent on industrial conditions than does the daily, but it isusually able to rise above defeat and by its resourcefulness adaptitself to adverse conditions.Dodwell followed Pighius in calling them diarium, Urbisdiurna, commented on themat great length in his appendix, and in histreatise De Veteribus Cyclis persisted in regarding them as authentic.Narrative of an Expelled Correspondent, pp.

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Vacillating regulations applied to correspondents.Change in literary style of the press.Annual Report of the AmericanHistorical Association for 1912, pp.The high type of men who havebeen special correspondents on five continents at the behest ofthe greatest newspapers in the world is a guarantee that as far asis humanly possible they will overcome these limitations inherentin the position.Sands declared that there is no basis for therumors of a secret treaty of alliance between Russia andJapan.

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England, that can possibly be compiled: nordo I know any thing, which would give posterity so clear an idea ofthe taste and morals of the present age, as a bundle of our daily papers.Any erroneous reflection upon the character,standing or reputation of any person, firm, or corporation which mayappear in the columns of The Brooklyn Daily Times will be gladly correctedupon request at themain office, 24 and 26 Broadway, Brooklyn.See Scandal and the press.Specific guarantees of federal government.The functions of the early war correspondents were not indeedthe same as those of the war correspondent of a later day, yetthe steps in the evolution of the one from the other are clearlyseen and to his long career may perhaps be in part ascribed thecontinued activity of the war correspondent in the field of journalism.

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But, while dramatic criticism has now cometo be an important feature of the press, it furnishes the historianone of his most troublesome problems.But these documentswill not give the impression the war makes on the public, orthe influences that are at work for and against war.So far, indeed, as it is obeyed, the object of thosewho framed it, the diminution of the influence of the newspaperpress, has been effected.These questions have beenraised, not to decide them, but to indicate that the historiancan not accept without further investigation these statementsthat may be ex parte and conventional.Nor again was it a temporary feeling growing out ofirritation with Henry Crabb Robinson.

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It is spoken of as the gutterpress, the sensational press, a jackal press, an inspired press, acapitalistic press, a reptile press, a prostituted press; the news itpresents is said to have been elaborated, embroidered, garbled,colored, cooked, doctored, padded, improved, distorted, truncated, faked, perverted, juggled, censored, exploited, spiced,falsified, poisoned, camouflaged; its accounts are called red,yellow, drab, gray, melodramatic, impressionistic, or tabloid; itsmanner of narration has, on the other hand, been termed dull,stupid, trivial, commonplace, unattractive, heavy, ponderous,monotonous, disjointed, and its general policy is alluded to as anewspaper game.Marconigram, silhouette, rooseveltism, wilsonize, baedecker, chautauqua, boycott, gerrymander.Association of Foreign Press Correspondents in the United States,date of formation of, 191.But while other occupations and professionsmust wait on theprinted word to carry abroad their strictures on themselves, thepress is ever prepared to act against itself.Neither the interview nor the interviewed are of importance and both are but shadows of a vanishingreality.Read a book, take a bubblebath or a longwalk.The public is so infatuated with the early stages of a war and so boredand incapable of serious interest in it after a few weeks, that the propertreatment of war news is the most serious problem which a newspapermanager has to face.

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Itmust also be consideredwith reference to those parts that consciously and by designgive an account of the events of the day, and the other part thatunconsciously and unintentionally records the spirit of the age.Elizabethan dramatic literature was accomplishedby a criticial consciousness which became more prevalent and definite astime went on.Increasing demand for illustration.He may agree that the directinfluence of the press may be trifling and harmless while itsindirect influence may be large and pernicious, or vice versa, andyet he knows that both conditions give him records that areequally important to him in his reconstruction of the past.All of the14 Sir John Hawkins, Life of Samuel Johnson, pp.Extracts from debates in Congress are givenin advertisements to satisfy a desire to know tendencies inlegislation proposed.The press its own critic.

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Many extracts from the newspapers themselves have been given since the newspaper is both consciously and unconsciously its own best record of its aimsand its methods of attaining them.Roumania, relief of, 338.Memoirs of JamesGordon Bennett, pp.Pittsburg Landing, battle of, 203.In 1912, it was estimated that 16, 000newspapers in America received either plate service or readyprint service, and that these newspapers were read by 60, 000, 000persons.

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Relative position of children.CybergirlMany interesting things for, andabout girls.In the case of Uncle Sam, it was long before the presentaccepted figure was finally evolved, 70 but while it now variesin proportions and in the fit of the clothes, it is everywhereunmistakably Uncle Sam.We are getting our South African newsfrom London as we get much of ourmeat and all our drink fromit.Bismarck who stated how much the Chancellor admired the PallMall Gazette and that he wished to supply it occasionally withreally good information on foreign affairs.Theearly newspapers were almost exclusively issued for grown men;later, newspapers introduced features for the groups of womenand children; present day newspapers abandon the special pagesor columns for women and children and make a new alignmentbased on community of interests among men, women, and children.

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Webster and inauguralGuide Post, 47.Trade journalism was started in America in 1846 by William Burroughs and Robert Boyd who issued the Dry Goods Reporter and CommercialGlance.Leigh Hunt, persisted in printing the statement.Bitand Spur, Farm and Garden, Profit and Loss, Case and Comment,Ores and Metals, Square and Compass, Barrel and Box.The daily city papers gave long and detailed accounts ofit, although both were carrying full page advertisements of the departmentstore where it occurred.Authoritative character of press to be determined from press itself.Cumberland himself, in the Introductory Address tothe London Review, explains that his real object was to correcta prevailing abuse.

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Insidious temptations of work.Be news ye mane misfortune.The politician may use the interview to conceal his real opinions,or if he inadvertently expresses them, he may repudiate the interview.Paper criers and caddies.Criticism of the press fashionable.Positive misinformation may at times be purposely and consciously given interviewers by the officials interviewed.Moravia, vvhich are fallen uppon the Colackes yet unknovvn.

Many a worthy and deserving and able public official has failedbecause he did not get his case across to the public through thenewspapers.EmergencyPeace Federation was answered with an advertisement that wasa biting parody of itself.Mutual relations of editor and owner.The first concerns the authoritativeness of the materialfound in its pages; the second concerns the value of all thismaterial, both authoritative and unauthoritative, in any attempted reconstruction of the past.Authoritativeness of press affected by war.Few readers of these Letters but will rid themselves of prevalent opinions as to the ease with which a serious magazine may be conducted, or as to the levity with which grave articles are put into print.In England the editorial has sought to influence public opinion, inFrance it seeks to act on the government, while in Germany it may beinfluenced by the government.

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In 1908 an entire sessionof the annual meeting of the American Historical Associationwas given to the discussion of the use of the newspaper byhistorians, and there are everywhere evidences of an increasingappreciation of the important place the newspaper occupies inthe equipment of the historian.Each political party has its own political organ,and every paper has its own political bias.Moniteur,appointing some of the bitterest enemies of the régime to portfolios.It is evident that the historian must also take into accountthepersonal characteristics of the periodical in which the reviewappears.Life of Johnson, ed.

It isoften necessary for the descriptions of important events to bewritten long in advance of the events themselves, yet it notinfrequently happens that the events do not take place either atthe time or in the manner described.Bismarck and the Pall Mall Gazette.England in the Spectator.Beecher, Joseph Cook andother notables of the pulpit.In theinterval Delane had personally investigated the whole matter, had sentChenery on a secret inquiry to Paris.

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Lee, Instruction in Journalism in Institutions of Higher Education,pp.House to have afuller report of such a matter.The Special Correspondent of a great newspaper possessesfor the time being something of the influence of an Ambassadorfrom one nation to another.Lee of Washington Collegesubmitted, on behalf of the faculty, to the board of trustees,certain recommendations looking to the establishment of fiftyscholarships for young men proposing to make printing or journalism their profession.The products ofthe country, prairie scenes, characteristic city buildings, thebuilding in which the paper is published, or the printing press areall utilized as emblems.Russell, My Diary North and South, pp.

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The whole bad business ofpuffery was upon a much lower basis not a great many years ago; and themanager of a theater, for the consideration of a free admission, thoughthimself entitled to the occupation of as many columns as he cared to fill.Doctrine of the Reformation as recognized in thearticles of churches of evangelical faith.Thomas, Fifty Years of Fleet Street, pp.Rickesday at Regenfpurg hall begin theTomorrow the generall ofembly of the Srates is co begun semptember.Enemy, and Avenger of the antibrutal, Fury; and deadly, poisonous malice.Newspaper Press Fund, Dickens atannual dinner of, 140.Its value to the historian lies in his ability to measure by it thedegree to which society has departed from the normal and todiagnose the particular nature of the disease that afflicts it.

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In this branch of his art Forbes has neverperhaps been equalled.Much that passes as newsand fills the foreground of the present will later on lapse into obscurity and be of no service whatever to the historian.He cansee and describe only isolated, local incidents and brief episodes,but these are subordinated to a great unified action, the purportof which he can neither see nor understand.War correspondence of recent war.These are certain external features of the press that like thedress of an individual indicate the crudities or the refinements oftaste that repel or attract different classes of readers.But these discrepanciesand contradictions deceive no one.

Robinson, the editor of the Boston Republican in 1848,found more than once that his editorial had been altered by one48 Autobiography, I, chap.Development of reporter into special correspondent.He lives in the shadow of foreign courts anddescribes the events in the daily life of high potentates or of thosebelow stairs.Bacon publishes: or that, if thebooks are good, we are to say they are bad?Does notthe whole secret of good journalism depend upon the applicationto the men and events of the passing hour, the same critical149 The Letters of Queen Victoria, III, 590.The press assuredly can not be called capitalistic in the usual sense of theword.If he is in earnest he may soon sink a million.

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Exigencies of publication explain errors.Croker, employed it at last forthe gratification of his own morbid inclination to inflict pain.New York Times, November 13, 1916.Laughton, Memoirs of Henry Reeve, I, 339.Johnson, in Famous Reviews, pp.But some of the limitations on the work of the special correspondentmay be personal rather than official.

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NewPost, October 26, 1915.Maurice, Life of Fredrick Denison Maurice, II, pp.Wilberforce during a nap taken byan Irish reporter.SPECIAL correspondence is the chameleon of the press.BLUYSEN, Paul18611894 editor, reformer?The attitude the historian should assume towards criticismand the use he should make of the work of the critic in theperiodical press is a troublesome problem.The drama is everywhere inEurope and America rapidly passing from an art into an amusement, just as of old it passed from a religious ceremony into anart.

Magazine; but that, at the timehe wrote them, he did not think he was imposing on the world.As if we wanted his noblesentiments.Ireland, reforms necessary for, 13; government advertisements in papers of,87; relief of, 338.In the name of common sense, Mr.Instead of personal caricature, we have symbols of parties, movements,and issues.

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Clapp, Reminiscences of a Dramatic Critic, pp.Beaumont how the law prohibitinganonymous journalismwas received.But the Associated Press can not be held responsible forthe accounts written by irresponsible reporters connected withthe papers constituting its membership.This great fraud upon the public was to be put an end to,or, failing sufficient support, the journal should be abandoned.You buy more than actual space when you use The New York Evening Post.Autobiography of a Journalist, II, 228.Thecharge, therefore, that the Associated Press is a monopoly mustbe dismissed on both counts.

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Financial rewards for the press.The text is given in the New York Times, December 24, 1918.But the function of the interview has changed in the fiftyyears since it was definitely introduced and naturally its relativeimportance has changed.The business manager may fall far short of paying for the cost ofproduction with the receipts of circulation and therefore dependunduly on advertisements to make up a threatened deficit, or hemay secure a nice balance of forces between all the factors of income and outgo and maintain at the same time the lowest price,the largest circulation, and the largest dividends.Meantime it must be rememberedthat the temper of the advertiser always differs from the temperof the editor, as the function of each differs with reference to itsrelation to the press.

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The Coming Newspaper, pp.At times the fakedinterview can be attributed only to desire for sensationalism or topaucity of genuine news items, and at such times every persondeservedly prominent in the community or in public life seems tobe at themercy of irresponsible interviewers.Man never is, but always to beblest.All use of the illustrations of the war period must be temperedby these national characteristics and it is in this respect butduplicating the experience of the press as a whole.The guarantee does not protect the historian froma colorless, negative press, but it should protect him from a fawningsubservient press that truckles to authority.Charges brought against war correspondence.

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The fundamental one is that it is a business enterprise.Journalists can neither do justice tothemselves nor serve the public honestly in a syndicated pressproducing opinion to a pattern designed by its proprietor.Hemaygo to Mexico on behalf of the owners of oil wells and presumablyhe decides that intervention in Mexico is necessary.To this extraordinary development the student of history cannot be indifferent.He finds the advertisements themselves often speciousThere is much, however, to disprove the sweeping character of thisstatement.

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These titles are but suggestive and illustrative of the very large numberof works of this character.Outlook, London, bill proposed by, 227.The headline and spelling.It is given in Mrs.Stocqueler, The Duke of Wellington,II, 152.The London Times, October 26, 1916.

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Do you never elaborate a little personal encounter and pass over more solid discussions?Punch, May 10, 1890.They must be men of parts and of good appearance and behavior.Titles and ordersof nobility have been the coin of the realm with which the Sultanhas in Turkey secured immunity from criticism.Francis, John Francis, Publisher of theAthenaeum, I, 30.

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The question of the distribution of newspapers may not seemto concern the historian, yet how vitally it does concern him isevident from the controversy precipitated when the news companies in New York City, due to the insistence and threats ofthe city dailies, refused to deliver the New York Tribune to anynewsdealer who on patriotic grounds, or for any other reason,refused to handle and sell the Hearst papers.Yet even so, very able writers, in full sympathy with the men whose biographies they are writing, with a fearless determination to write impartially even while writing sympathetically, in possession often failed to make editors live again in their pages.Shubert theaters, dramatic critic barredfrom, 320.Victor dog, Bon Ami chicken, Horlick cow, Borden eagle, borax mules,tobacco bull, dates of dromedary fame, are but suggestions of the wide useof animals in advertising.See also Mechlenburg Declaration ofIndependence.

Magazine as quicklyshowed the asperity of one whose supremacy has been threatened.The great business corporations, especially those controllingindustry and transportation, have heretofore not taken the publicinto their confidence and hence have laid themselves open tocensure.XViBlunders of the reporter.Theactor I went for was myself!Occasional histories of individual newspapers have been of value, but as they are usually written in commemoration of some special event they have had distinct limitations.The federal government furnishes stillmore specific guaranteesby which the historian profits.The Mediaeval in Fashions Supersedes the Russian.

We refund promptly if the advertiser does not.In Americabut little effort wasmade by the early press to substantiate theinformation received, the facilities for doing so were inadequateeven had the wish been present, little interest was shown in localnews, and news from a distance came slowly and irregularly.Homme Enchainé, butafter he became premier, the paper reverted to its former name.War and industrial society.As wars differ among themselves, so also do countries andreaders differ, and the opinion has been expressed that warcorrespondence influences public opinion far more in Englandthan it does in France or in Germany.The press quarters in Galicia were described in the New York Tribune,November 30, 1914.In Memoriam: WilliamHoward Russell.

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Henry Crabb Robinson writes in his Diary, Reminiscences and Correspondence, I, chap.Defense of Thomas Frost.New York paper published thirteen.It isthe function of the newspaper, through the reporter, to attemptto gratify both instincts, but the success is not always equallydivided between the two and the reporter sometimes seemspredestined to at least partial failure.This considers the advantages and the limitations of the press considered with reference to external control.These areoften accepted by the press, but how far acceptance is at thebehest of unseen and unknown powers, how far it is in responseto hidden pressure, how far it reflects public opinion, how far it isthe result of an inherited, ingrained aversion to genuine independence, how far it represents a desire for conformity, howfar it results from genuine conviction on the part of the pressit is impossible for the historian to determine.

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This statement can not pass unchallenged.It can seldom command men of the abilitythat represent the great London papers in foreign capitals, because of the inferior standing of journalists in Germany incomparison with those in Western Europe.Daily press, November 1, 1916.CHAPTER XVIIHow FAR CAN THE PAST BE RECONSTRUCTED FROM THE PRESS?Jerdan says that, for a number of years,journal, and other papers in various parts of the country.

Party journalism, 33; declining, go.The recent war gave an opportunity for issuing newspapersthat had been forged and were then circulated as propaganda.The German Foreign Office was at that time particularly sensitive to the official indiscretions of the Emperor since he hadrecently given an impetuous interview to an English reporterwho had written a flattering article about him.Failure to give continuous news.Catling on the headline.

Difficulty of representing all opinions.Influence on his work of general press conditions.Thorold, The Life of Henry Labouchere, especially chap.Atkinson, Wilmer, Autobiography, cited,Ashley, Evelyn, 188.The public attention was attracted, andI was told to go on; and so the Washington correspondence became a feature in all the New York papers by degrees.Changing tastes in illustration.Richard Harding Davis, NewYorkTribune,September 4, 1914.

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Reasons for opposition of authority to war correspondents.Special editions, 12, 63.During the ardour of conversation Johnson remained silent.Printing andPublishing Assn.New York Evening Post, May 3, 1912.Obituary noticesare published of prominent citizens said to be at the point ofdeath, yet they have recovered and sometimes lived for yearsafter these notices appeared.New York Edison Co.

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Santa Claus, symbol, 402.The editor feels that he is limited by the temperament of hiscontributors and the contributor languishes under the heavyhand of the editor.Edward Cave and his exchange.It is to examine the18 William Jerdan, Autobiography, IV, 82.Difficulties of war correspondent.Parliament then kept the Press in a kind of mysteriousawe, which made it necessary to have recourse to such devices.

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Daily press, February29, 1916.New York Tribune, December 30, 1921.Whitelaw Reid, American and English Studies, II, 221.This enormous increase in circulation has been both a resultand a cause, it has both met a demand and created a demand.Somewhat later, sketches made by Simpson ofthe sword, spur, and cross used in the investiture of Lord Buteas a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, said to have been those usedby Godfrey of Bouillon, showed that the claim was withoutfoundation as the spur sketched had a roulette, while the spursof the time of Godfrey had only spikes.Returning home from exciting political meetings in the country to thewaiting press in London, I do verily believe I have been upsetin almost every description of vehicle known in this country.With regard to the major part, we pretend only torepresent the sense, as near as may be expected in a summary way; andtherefore, as to any little expression being mistaken, which does not affectthe scope of the argument in general, we hope, as not being done withdesign, it will be favourably overlooked.

Fullaccounts are given in all the papers of the time.Six Months in the Federal States, I, 47.Today, IWD belongs to all groups collectively everywhere.Intimately connected with the suppression of the news, is thequestion of venality.McClure gives a full account of his own connection with thesyndicate in My Autobiography, pp.Enormousexpense is incurred in getting news in advance of competitors,but no evidence is shown that equal expense is incurred in gettingauthoritative news.Atkins, Life ofSir William Howard Russell, 2 vols.

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Sources of information available for reporters.But the ability of reporters so much lauded by their contemporaries becomes the discomfiture of the historian.It proved to be a forecast of the course of the secretary of thetreasury inafinancial crisis thenimpending.The Owl that for some years amused and informedEnglish society with its entertaining comments on normal life inthe upper circles.The question remains as to how far all of these many minds ofmany men, these varying practices of the press in different countries and of the press in a single country at different times affectthe authoritativeness of the press from the point of view of thehistorian.Our educational system is still in its essential ideals founded onthe principle of authority rather than on that of research.Yet this changehas been partly attributable to the general improvement in themoral tone of society.

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And it must be remembered that it is easy tojudge the press by its worst representatives, that a few conspicuous illustrations of its rampant errors serve, in the eyes ofmany, as a sufficient basis for a sweeping condemnation of thepress as a whole, and that standards of perfection are raised forthe press collectively that never could be applied to individuals.Correspondence of Goldwin Smith, pp.The candid Reader,who knows the difficulty, and sometimes danger, of publishing Speeches inParliament, will easily conceive that it is impossible to do it in the verywords of the Speakers.Difficulties of a different nature were opened up to FrederickDenison Maurice.Addison and Steele strove for independence of theirpatrons, not always successfully.Advertisements for promotion of good will.Nothing more clearlyindicates how widespread is the love of luxury to which particuexpensive clothing for men and women, gifts, jewelry, flowers,confectionery, restaurants, music, amusements, and excursionsto all expensive resorts arranged for the Easter season.

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Johnson and by other reporters for different periodicals.Magazine in 1731, Cave began tentatively publishing thereports of parliamentary debates.Reporting in the hands of the press.It was practically a hundred years after the appearance of the first English news paper before the editorial appeared even in shadowy form, and long after that before it assumed the responsibility of leading public opinion.Wall Street,by the trusts, by the interests, by corporations, by its advertisers,by politics, or by commercialism.Two days later the same evening paper announced that there wasno serious damage to the pavement and that the driver agreed topay the city for the damage done the red lights along the pavements.

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At the opening of the Council, each Bishop, as hewalked up thenave of St.If a reporter has a grudge against a Town Councillor, a Poor LawGuardian, or a Borough Magistrate, and if he is really vindictive, the mosteffective course of vengeance that he can adopt is to record verbatim allthat his enemy utters in public.State and municipal journals.Governments have entered the lists and have extensivelyused the advertisement to secure recruits, 14 to further government loans, and to carry on their commercial and industrial activities.Des Granges, La Presse Littéraire sous la Restauration, 18151830, pp.Heaton,The Story of a Page, pp.

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In their use of newspapers and similar materials, McMasterand von Holst submitted them to all the critical tests necessaryto determine their value for their own work, but it was foreignto their purpose to elaborate these principles.The newspaper is often equally firm in stating its intention tosecure the prompt delivery of papers to its subscribers and itpromises to give immediate attention to all complaints made ofcarriers, though stating at the same time that carriers are notallowed to receive complaints or notices to stop subscriptions.It ispossible that this is only a legitimate protest against spiteful criticism,though the poem itself does not indicate it.The newspaper thus did not spring full armed from the head ofZeus, but as far back as human history can be traced it had itsbeginnings in the various expedients that provided partialequivalents for gratifying a desire for news, as well as the earlyawakenings of a desire for an expression of public opinion.Report from the Select Committee of the House of Lords on Reporting.Reed, in Newsboy Service, presents the problem of the newsboyin relation to the work of the public school.

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See Klaw and Erlanger.Effect of war on advertising.The press thus guarantees on the one hand protection to itsreaders from advertisers seeking to promote their own selfish ends,and on the other hand it guarantees its advertisers a reliablecirculation.Morey had opposed restriction on Chinese immigration and thus contradicted one plankin the Republican platform.To this peril journalismhas also succumbed.

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Butapart from these two sources, continuity ofmaterial is not foundin the press.Its plan of organization.Lord Acton and the Roman Catholic press.Spaggyor his armic, berides procured no Imoll ſcare.John Francis, I, 155.How far they reflected public opinion can not be measured with any degree of certainty.The charge that reviewers do not read the books they affect to criticizewas current when Gifford reviewed Endymion in the Quarterly, April, 1818.

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That he had employed eight years ofhis life in the study of Demosthenes, and finished a translation of thatcelebrated orator, with all the decorations of style and language, within thereach of his capacity; but he had met with nothing equal to the speech abovementioned.This has an account of an important collectionof political and municipal broadsides preserved in Arbroath in 1888.Importance of news collecting agencies to historian.In editing an oracle,it was then, as it still is, of primary importance not to make badmistakes.These mutual interests of the press and of the library mayseem to be of a somewhat routine, conventional character, andapart from the reviews of new books, to affect little the questionof authoritativeness with which the historian is primarily concerned.

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Acta Senatus and Acta Diurna were all means among the Romans for gratifying this instinct for news.Lee, Daniel Defoe, I, 305.United Press despatches, July 6, 1916.Fleet Street inMilitary press.In the small Bohemian town the newspaper is a crierwho summons the people by a vigorous roll on his drum,and when the curious townsfolk are assembled he proceeds toimpart the latest news to them.And if at times the war correspondent is tempted to rebel atthe entanglements in which he is enmeshed by governments, bywar departments and by censors, he also remembers that he hasprofited enormously by inventions that make his work moreintelligible, and that transmit it with allpossible speed.

House ofCommons as an unimpeachable authority.Changing tendencies in the press do not lessen its value for the historianCHAPTER IITHE NEWSPAPER AS A PERSONALITYPersonality eludes definition.Interdependence of press and all human activities.Curiously enough, while elaborate qualifications have been listed forevery other person connected with the staff of a newspaper, comparativelyfew have been noted in regard to the editor.European papers indicate the genuine misery and sorrow that followin the wake of war.But the development of advertising has reached far beyond theconfines of business.

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They are variouslydescribed as photographs, paintings, drawings, impressions, sketches, visions,drawings from notes, drawings from photographic material and notes,drawings from notes by an eye witness, drawings from descriptions, drawingsfrom sketches on the spot, drawings by A roughly finished by B, drawingsby C from sketches by D, and paintings from descriptions by eye witnesses.It was presented to the college by the Baroness Uriuherself in a clever speech, in the deliberate English which marksher delivery.Speaking somewhere of the monthly apparitionsof new journals, and their frantic vicissitudes of form, color, size,price, etc.Confusion in using such material.New York Tribune,August 24, 1918.

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In information derived from such sources the interest concerns mainlyplatforms, policies, activities, endowments, and the extension orcontraction of work already undertaken.Often these statements may be strictly correct as regards specificdetails, yet the account as a whole may give an erroneous emphasis to unimportant incidents, it may show a wrong perspective, it may deduce a conclusion from insufficient data.The advertisement has come to be an importantmedium for conveying information and influencing public opinion 46 and has thus in large measure supplanted the editorial as thechannel through which opinion is reflected, expressed, or moulded.Other handicaps of the reporter.Inveresk Gazette by boarding school boys.April 1, 1869, 8: 252.

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It is charged that the news supplied is partisan.These ran fromOctober 9 to November 7, 1916, and constitute the most explicit arraignmentof a public official through advertisement that has been noted.XV;historian and, 412, 416, 421.He directed attention to its supposedpriority of publication over all other newspapers in existenceand says that he was filled with patriotic joy that the first newspaper published was, as he supposed, British in every respect.Daily press, June21, 1918.Nor is the proposal to increase the postage on the advertisements carried by newspapers and magazines other than a claimfor the pound of flesh.

Bob Lowe wrote such an article upon Bright.They carry advertisementsin different languages, and they republish in book form the advertisements that have appeared in their columns.All of this he must test by the lawsof evidence used in the examination of other classes of records,and only that part that stands the test can be accepted by him.But to the historian theinterest of the commercial advertisement lies not so much in itsubiquity, its obtrusiveness, its cleverness, and its ingratiatingmanner as it does in the appeal it unconsciously makes to itsreaders, in the changes that have come in this respect, and in therevelation of itself and of current conditions that are thus made.Drain on resources of the press.Even the newspapers themselves sometimes advertise their own merits ina misleading way.

German pacifist and his researches suppressed.Bloomer who owned, edited and publishedThe Lily, devoted to the interests of women.Selectionfrom the Correspondence of the Late Macvey Napier, pp.Boers, correspondents influence England against, 189.The financial, as well as the official and the social, rewards thatcome to the press through party support can not be ignored.Saunders has been a friendly adviser.CHAPTER IIIGUARANTEES OF PROBABILITYGeneral constitutional guarantees.

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But since Governmenthas often been averse to conferring such favors, even when it hashad the opportunity, the explanation is scarcely satisfactory.Godkin felt that before American criticism could merit the name it would have to pass through thisstormy and belligerent stage like that of English criticism during the firstquarter of the nineteenth century.Congress for the sake of theloaves and the fishes.Aristotle, criticism in time of, 287, 325.It involves not only the points anticipatedby the virtuous publishers of the History of the Works of theLearned, but it has a history of its own, themain points of whichmust be familiar to those using criticism and the book review ashistoricalmaterial.But skilled newspaper meninstructed in the art of war and military strategy and then giventhe responsibility of censoring the news would reduce to a minimum the chances of error.

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No phonograph record fails to amuse.Something to add to the LIST?Life represented Lincoln after the manner of ten different artists.In exceptionally flagrant cases, the columns of rival papers may publish explanatory communications from those who have suffered; this, while of little service to the person immediately concerned, as explanations in other papers seldom reach those reading the original interviews, is of service to the historian in his final account of the questions involved.Casoni, director of Osservatore Romano,Call, 48.

An exceptionally interesting collection has been made of the Latin andGreek mottoes of the Spectators, Tatlers, and Guardians; the second editionadded the mottoes of the Freeholders.LenemariefcherCrais, coin to the longmile, but as the King under.XI, that in January, 1807 he received a proposalfrom Mr.Apparently The Times took no precautions and applied no tests to ascertain the genuineness of the letter published.Life and Errors of John Dunton, II, 423.

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Lipsius, in his notes on Tacitus, had already cited some lines in 1581, andMark Welser, in 1596, had spoken of them as vouched for, not by himself,but by Ortelius or Vives.Much of the war correspondence of the recent war has obviously soughtto distribute praise impartially and equally to all contestants among theAllies.Dooley or aHennessy, a Senator Sorghum or a Farmer Corntossle, a Mrs.Southwest north of Dallas, south of Kansas City, east ofDenver, and west of St.Public Advertiser fromJanuary 21, 1769, to January 21, 1772, has been one of the mostremarkable on record, the literature of identification has been almost inexhaustible, and it is still coming from the press.

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Acta Diurna and, 412, 413n.Comparative merits of both systems.These areas a rule signed with the name of the writer, or with his initialsand thus easily identified.But a movementto save the retail trade district of New York was carried onthrough advertisement and met with surprising success.Theinfluence of the correspondent may be used for good ends, buthe may be in turn under the influence of the man higher up.Dedicate some time each day to spendjust with yur familywith no interruptions and plan special family outings andholiday getaways as often as you can.

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The critics may disagree among themselves, as when one dramatic critic recently wrote of a first night that the actors had madethe play, while another wrote of the same performance that agood play had been spoiled by bad acting.College was not opened in 1867; reference to the register of graduates would have shown that the statementattributed to themythical principalhad no foundation in fact.Within the various states political advertising waseffectively used.The Mystery of the Daily Mail, pp.We do not reflect on the living vehicles of news which thenand relatives in London, but oftener, according to a regular agreement, byclerks in the office of Sir Joseph Williamson.Daily press, June, 1919.

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The decline of the editorial is most often attributed to thechanges in the business administration of the newspaper.Louis Philippe, See Philippe, Louis.It had been well for his renown if he hadcontinued this lofty policy, leaving to time the assertion of truth and theconfusion of his maligners.Incidentally,its editor states, it paid five per cent.Lynn Linton in her indignation over what she deemedthe unfairness of an author to the subject of his biography.

It was news, for example, to cable from Paris the breakfast prisonmenu of a prominent woman who was the defendant in a murder trial;that at a Swiss winter resort the wife of a prominent public official hadworn Turkish trousers at a fancy dress ball; that King George and QueenMary breakfasted on buckwheat cakes while visiting an encampment ofAmerican troops; to report, not the points in an address on the League toEnforce Peace made by a former president of the United States, but hiswinter rule for keeping down his weight.He insists that he realizes the costliness of war corof the Tribune.In truth, the French law requiring thatevery article on politics, philosophy or religion shouid be signedand prescribing heavy penalities for its violation had been aimed,not at the welfare of individual journalists, but at the suppressionof the press.This present conception of news and the keen competition fornews has led to the rapid increase in personal journalism with itsemphasis on the private life, the personal appearance, the publicaffairs of every individual in any way conspicuous.The right of the press to report courttrials was early disputed and obstacles were put in the way ofreporters scarcely less troublesome than awaited them at thedoors of Parliament.New interests of the historian.

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When new educational methods are agitated,it secures special correspondents and contributors who set forththe pros and cons of the Montessori system, the Gary plan, theeducational survey, vocational training, night schools for foreigners, and other mooted questions.But I made the stories interesting.The article was in fact not written by the official in question,but by a distinguished scholar who had offered his services to the government.The samemay be said of foreign journals, where the reduction in size has not compensated for the increasing difficulties in obtainingpaper.Thesubstitution of the impersonal corporation for the personal ownerhas necessarily affected adversely the importance of the editorial.Such corrections it often publishes.It is thus seen that the government, in some form, eitherfederal, state, or local, is the source of no small part of the dailypaper and it thus becomes the guarantor of the reliability of suchparts as it itself furnishes.

Fortunately for him, many ofthese errors are quickly detected, and it is possible to classify themaccording to their source and thus be prepared to recognize othererrors of the respective classes.General tendency towards increasing authoritativeness of the press.The Gathering of the Forces, by WaltWhitman, I, Xxx.The early indifference of the library to the preservation ofnewspaper files and of the press to the preservation of its ownfiles has often caused embarrassment to the historian, as hasthe wanton, or necessary, destruction of files that have beencarefully collected and preserved.American; Graphic; Negro;Nonconformist; Religious; and Yellow press; Newspaper.

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The Italian newspapers accept the material forillustration, which is supplied gratis, with joy, and print it.Censorship and special correspondence.The readeron his partmust have the seeing eye and the understanding mind.Fourth of July with its appeal to a new nationalism and internationalism is far removed from the flamboyant, bombasticcelebrations illustrated fifty years ago.Weekly, July 1, 1905.It is established on four continentswith Bureaus in Paris, London, Berlin, Vienna, Rome, Sydney,Mexico City, Ottawa, Pekin, Washington, New York, Chicago,Boston and elsewhere.

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Sarrer Crais are ga.Parts of press most used in reconstructing past.Hamilton Holt, Commercialism and Journalism, pp.Saunders was amazed that I had never heard of it.What is to be the attitude of the historian towards the illustration considered collectively as well as by its various classes?

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Wesleyan Methodists, or General Baptists, or Particular Baptists.Jumae threw himſelfc headlong out of the whue Tower intokem Gabor as there King.Willis in theEgyptian campaign of 1882 when he learned that war correspondents andartists actually ran the great risk of going to the front.Wherever the evilexists, it quickly cures itself without the exercise of compulsion.Changing standards of conventionality.These guarantees are as absolute as it is possible tofind, and they affect the permanent parts of the newspaper andmuch of the news proper except local news.The Porcupine ran only from October, 1800 to November, 1801 and it ispossible that one of the contributory causes of its short career may have beenits pioneer policy in regard to advertising.

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The cartoon is reproduced in Maurice and Cooper, History of the Nineteenth Century in Caricature, pp.In the early days, he was a man on horseback who shared theprivations of the troops and was one of them.But the periodicalsalready published under government auspices 76 can not alwaysbe given a clean bill of health.Matthew Arnold and the personality of the Times.Dickens was read andcriticized by his contemporaries for the sake of the story, thedescriptions, the interest in the characters, and the problemsoflife that he presented.

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Rich in its vein of solemn respectability,it discourses on everything with judicious gravity, and in a spirit of unimpeachable Whiggism.Decline of interest in verbatim reports.Among them have been those of concretegun foundations in England and inFrance; the transfer ofRussian troops around Archangel; the death of the Crown Princestated in dispatches dated variously from Geneva, Athens,Rome, Stockholm, or The Hague; the illness of the GermanEmperor; the exact number of English casualties as reportedfrom Copenhagen; the number of German troops transferredfrom the West to the East, or from the East to the West; theappearance of the Angel of Mons, and the blowing up of foodwagons.The trade journals published in Chicago in 1922 numbered 450.Genesis of the newspaper in England.

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All of this development is in itself anassurance of the authoritativeness of Parliamentary reportingas at present carried on.Deliberate forgeries of letters to the press.Shea, Leaves from the Life of a Special Correspondent, II, 171.But it was the editor who may once have placed his initialsunder his editorial, as did Horace Greeley.His ownunconscious tendency may be to judge the press collectively bythe press of the country with which he is most familiar, and tojudge the press of his own country by the conditions under whichhe personally knows it.House of Lords, that he was disposedto give implicit credit to his precision in the present instance,and therefore no more was said on the subject.Difficulties on the side of the press.

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Lynd, Robert, on book reviewing, 306,318.The caricature is an intellectual and artistic rashthat appears when the body politic is out of order, and thehistorian can regard it only as a symptom of the existence ofunhealthy conditions.Telegram Agency, English,severed connections with SwedishTelegram Bureau, 133.The element of caricature in the political cartoon has been disappearing.They probably form the numerically largest single class of works connected with the press and they are of importance in showing the development of the powerful alliance be tween the business management and the editorial side of the newspaper.Examination of these criticisms.If it be true that the chief function of a newspaper is criticism,it is also true that there is a widespread skepticism as to thetrustworthiness of newspaper criticism and it is with this skepticism that the historian is concerned.

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Daily News, Santa Barbara, emblem of,51.All are wicked here; where arethe good?How important is this task or event?Southey used towork regularly two hours a day on the history of Brazil, then an hour forthe Quarterly Review, then an hour on the life of Wesley, then two hourson the Peninsular War, then an hour on the Book of the Church.They attached themselvesto this or that Minister, attacked or defended this or that treaty,this or that policy.The secret ofthe authorship of the debates was divulged by Dr.Fliegende Blätter, 382, 409.

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Every librarian hasmet them, and in our Society, withits immense newspaper collections, it constitutes a true probleminvolving a continuance of its shining preeminence amongcollecting institutions.Not only have their numbers increased butmany believe that the type has deteriorated.It is easy to believe how ayoung apprentice in criticism was encouraged in his new calling.In protest against these evils, Richard Cumberlandin 1809 founded the London Review of which the distinguishingfeature was to be that each writer should put his name to thearticle.Here, as at various other points, the questionenters the realm of ethics.The NewYork papers of February 19, 1916, contained an illustrationshowing the effect of a Zeppelin raid upon Paris, but the censor would notpermit the publication of the exact location of the apartment house bombarded.Advantageous results of advertising on the press itself.

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Every new controlling interest that arises in any group ofpersons quickly finds expression through a new type of periodical.Cook, Literary Influence in Colonial Newspapers, chap.Reporterswith a knowledge of the elementary facts of medical sciencewould presumably write of medical questions more understandingly than is now possible.Parliament that escaped the vigilance of the authorities.This isnot as often as it might be the attitude of great corporations.But it seems uncertain whether it was intended as a deliberate hoax or as asatire.Guarantees under normal conditions.

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The development of national advertising has donemuch to develop the local and provincial press.If books are to be noticed at all, it must be done uprightly and witheven scales.The New York World established, July, 1913, a Bureau of Accuracyand Fair Play.The early English newspapers weremost frequently namedMercury, with some qualifying appellation.Connell guilty,at last.But those too subdivided?

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Philadelphia Public Ledger, November, 1916.Catholikes, and will not goe with theProceffion are commanded to be quiet and not to die vponpaintofdeath.One of themost interesting of these unusual papers is the first numberof the Sitka Times, September 19, 1868.Jay, John, letters of, 422.The newspaper press has long been a favorite subject for articles in reviews and magazines.

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The dailypress gave wide publicity to the report.Napoleon III to the Times during the lastministry of Lord Palmerston.Henderson has noted the extraordinarynumber of symbols, personifications, and emblems that weredeveloped during the French Revolution.If the press can govern the country,let them fight the battles.It has been traced to the Mercurius Politicus, the officialgazette the first number of which appeared June 13, 1650.Clean but not dull.Yet it is not necessary toturn to visiting tourists from Europe to realize how essentially theheadline measures the good taste or the bad taste of the press.

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He may be the champion of a dying cause as was Paul deCassagnac who upheld the Empire and opposed the Republicuntil his death in 1904.It, therefore, published an elaborate advertisement containing the original order issued bythe directors of the company, stating fully its position, givingin detail its own contributions to the patriotic movement, andshowing the trade sacrifices made in order to give preference toGovernment orders.It reflects even more perfectly than do statements of the numberof editions issued and copies sold to what extent the impressionleft has been purely ephemeral, how far it has been relativelypermanent, how far a work has at first apparently been a failurebut later has come into its own.Reputable papers no longer admit the advertisements of questionable concerns and editorial virtue in declaiming against them,while carrying them in its own columns, illustrates the ostrich17 England and the English, II, 14.What I complainof in the Times is that it never says the same thing.Explanation of opposition of Parliament to reporters.The works of Gillray preserve an entire social revolution.

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Literary Gazette, 452; Coburn on, 292.At this period existed none of those leading articles or elaboratecommentaries on public questions, which now occupy so prominent a place in our daily papers.Records imperfectly governmental control.The rules were relaxed about February 27, 1915.Comparativemerits of signed and unsigned reviews.General lack of authoritativeness of interviewDistrust of form given it.

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See introduction to the volume.Reynolds, was even himself the author of it.But until twenty years after The Nation was founded, howfew they were, how sneered at, how disliked!This thenewspaper must give as well as the lights and shades of war.Especially in Canada complaint was made that one despatch might appearin several guises in the same paper.America hasgradually developed a symbolic language, probably less completethan that used abroad.

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Massachusetts Centinel, quoted, 429.The provincial press had its own special grievance in that itsrepresentatives were barred from the galleries.Sidney Whitman states that he had seen an illustrated paper givingharrowing pictures of women and children being massacred in a church.English models, Addison, Pope, and Dryden.Swift was indifferent to patronage; that Cobbettappealed to the masses; and that Leigh Hunt made journalismBut in 1810 the Reverend James Beresford wrote The TwelveLabours of an Editor, separately pitted against those of Hercules.

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The restraints on the individual are many and serious, and oftenperfectly legitimate.Memoirs of James Gordon Bennett, pp.New York Evening Post, May 19, 1919.American Magazines is thatthe names of all contributors are generally paraded conspicuouslyon the cover, very few seeking even the guise of a pseudonym.James Spedding, Evenings with a Reviewer, or Macaulay and Bacon,2 vols.

Many of the side lines of advertising are no less important tothe historian than are these large, more conspicuous classes.The religious press illustrates how different are the problemspresented to the historian by it and by the political press.Arch Dukr Lecopellus, and leecha 14.The press is theworst feature in the situation, andyet the press would not be what it is without a public demand for it as it is.Impatience with faked interviews.

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Recollectionsof a Humorist, pp.These difficulties need not be hererepeated.Much important information is given throughout the book in regard tothe promises held out and the difficulty of fulfilling them.It is an equally faithful record of thechanging tastes in the subjects chosen for illustration.American War the passenger steamer Paris left NewYork and was daily reported by a sensational daily as having been seized;the report was at once contradicted by the same paper, and then the contradiction denied.Set aside a little time each daytospend doing something just for you.

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Bit and Spur, 48.It has been noted more than once that a trainedreporter may sometimes brush away the obscurities of the law andsee the point at issuemore clearly than the court, bound to givedecisions in accordance with the law.The rural communityknows itself, it is interested in reading about itself, and it makesthe necessary modifications of all local accounts given.Real service may be rendered justice by reporters.Walker for many consecutive numbers and special copies of Greek newspapers.Boards of education and the teaching staffwish better school buildings and better equipment, but thisdemands money from the taxpayers, and the taxpayers demur.Oliphant, Annals of a Publishing House, I, 194.

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Shea, Leaves from the Life of a Special Correspondent, II, 235236.Von Bissing and the interview.Report of the Council, American Antiquarian Society, 1918.Brandeis was not confirmed by the Senate until June 1, 1916.The most carefully prepared newsarticles and letters to the editor seem often foreordained to become journalistic amoebae.Its first appearance was in America about the time ofthe Civil War, it was rare until about 1868, and the first formalnotice of the practice of interviewing probably appeared in 1869.

These federal and state provisions that guarantee freedom ofthe press throughout the country have their counterpart in lawsrestraining the press from printing false ormalicious statements.It could not have afforded not to throw the money away.They announce the daily delivery of the paper by airplane, and statewhere copies may be obtained in other cities and what newsstands are open until late at night.Interpretation by the press necessaryInterpretation of the press.Bohemia and the editor.

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But all of the misdirected zeal in advertising is but a tithe of the total effort thathas been put into advertising to make it honest, effective, andrepresentative of the highest ideals.Punch hasmore than onceshown weak spots in the methods of canvassing at a generalelection and it has thus been an ally on the side of purity ofelections.Adamson, Fire Commissioner, on publicofficials and press, 359.Yeta few such instances are known and they have aroused interestcommensurate with their rarity.The works treating of the business administration of the press are concerned in the main with the subject of advertising in all of its ramifications, psychological, ethical, literary, and commercial.

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With reporters forbidden to report and printers forbidden toprint, the authoritativeness of the accounts of parliamentarydebates may well be questioned.Such is one form of the interview.Our Kine che merſheym, to take avvay the padag: from theLord General che Earle of Hohenlo, alſo the Marquis Spinola.Christmas sales have become the conspicuous feature of December advertising.Question of authoritativeness of correspondence.Many links are always lacking in the chain of evidenceand these must be supplied from other sources.

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Assuredly the effect of decisions of this character must be toleave the historian entirely in the dark as to the real merits ofdramatic presentation in theaters that virtually permit thepublication of only favorable criticism.Ideals expressed in mottoes adoptedAppeals made to readers.Silesia than of thewheat crop in Illinois.The Letters of Junius.Advertisement shows new demands.

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London Times, October 26, 1916; it was written apropos of an exhibitionopened in the Whitechapel Art Gallery of the war cartoons of all nations.The name of thelocal country reporter heads the items he sends in to the press ofthe nearest small city.This has resulted in extraordinary pressureon persons of distinguished reputation and those occupying highofficial position to contribute articles to the press of every degreeof periodicity.Southern Literary Messenger, on dependence on North, 56.In the perusal of these debates, as written, we cannot butwonder at the powers that produced them.

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The newspaper keepsits fingers on the past and its eyes on the future.Revolution itself and of its principles.After staring at each other in silent amaze, Dr.Edinburghjournals dependent on, 446.Preston Lockwood, New York Times, March 21, 1915.

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The interviewer is sometimesbumptious and reports his own preconceived ideas as those of theperson interviewed.The illustration presses upwardsinto the homes of the rich to seek their patronage, but it alsopresses downwards into the homes of the poor to show to therich conditions they have it in their power in part to relieve andprevent.These difficulties grow in part from the very nature of theseforms of expression.Copyrightlegislation protecting authors and artists benefits the historianin so far as it assures him that the articles and illustrations are theproperty, if not the actual work, of the person holding the copyright, and thus he is able to decide who is responsible for at least apart of the literary and the art columns.The limitations are primarily the officialrelations that have been already suggested, but they tend tobecome crystallized when the usefulness of correspondents isrecognized by the governments of the countries where theytemporarily reside.

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But the student of history realizes that in the last analysis theanswer to the question as to how far the newspaper can be authoritatively used in writing history can not come from notingwhat historians have or have not done in the past; it can not beanswered by considering how prominent and intelligent men haveregarded the press; it can not be decided by the popular opinionof the press; it can not be determined even by what newspapermen themselves think of their own profession; the question canbe answered only by a study of the press itself.The interests of women were long assumed to be peculiar, apartfrom the interests of the world in general, and consequently todemand journals especially for them.The city press unifies the undistinguishable masses in metropolitan areas; the country press unifies individuals whose interests have never been merged into those of a larger group.They neverend an Article with the mystical Hint, this occasions great Speculation.Collection of the Political Writings of William Leggett, edited byTheodore Sedgwick, Jr.

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But in spite of scepticism and even ridicule, courses in journalism have been established and have increased with astonishingrapidity both in numbers and in attendance.At one time the lattertold Lloyd that an article Lloyd had disapproved was written byJerrold.Royal mandates,church manifestoes, political agitation, party information,charitable appeals, poetry and art all have been or are the subject of the broadside.The advertisements of Protestantchurches are rather of the social side of the church as an organization thanof the religious beliefs held.The Express will every morning be an exactcopy of other journals, except in having one, two, or at most threeSA.

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Much may be gleaned in11 The New York Times, July 24, 1915.Change in editorial in England.Daughter ismarried without our being told, that she was a Lady of greatBeauty, Merit and Fortune.The Works of James Gillray, the Caricaturist.Different tests must be applied to the newspapersof different countries.

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Information guaranteed by the press.They sent us back the news which greatly rejoiced the wholearmy.The Gaul of a later day ran true to type and traveller andtrader developed into the nouvellistes whose occupation it was toknow every day the most recent news.It does not preventthe best representatives of the press from expressing an honestopinion adverse to themerits of new books and at the same timecarrying the advertising matter of the firms publishing these verybooks.Tyne Express, of which he was editor, to one of the proprietors of the Central Press.Do Newspapers Now Give the News?

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Federal13 Reports of the Army and Navy Bazaar, daily press, October, 1917.Godkin, The History of Hungary and the Magyars, pp.Atkins, The Life of SirWilliam Howard Russell, Í, chap.Service of the advertisement to thehistorian.Thereshould be no attempt at any compromise with the unclean thing.The artistic temperament and the editor.

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Ifnews that the critic thinks important does not appear in hismorning paper, the impulse is to assume that it has been wilfully suppressed.Somewhat similar incompatibility between John Walter and Delane ledto the vesting of full editorial control in Delane.Differences of opinion between Th.This federal legislation had been anticipated by state laws thatnow in nearly every state of the union secure the publication byevery paper in the state of the name and address of editor andbusiness manager.Variations between Hansard and collected speeches.

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Literal accuracy,as has been seen in the case of verbatim official reports, interviews,and illustrations, may often be misleading and in essence untruthful; a specious accuracy is perfectly compatible with agenuine fundamental misconception of an existing situation andwith ignorance of the real truth.If a newspaper does not alwayslive up to the rule of action indicated by them, possibly chosenfor the paper years before and never changed, their value ashistorical material is not thereby necessarily vitiated.If it doesnot actually print, it is at all times ready to give the name of theperson in charge of the various special departments demandedby its readers, or engaged to increase its circulation.In Memoriam: William Howard Russell.Both sides of disputes were presented through advertisements and occasionallya third side was advertised.Now, according to an axiom ofMachiavelli, an Ambassador should endeavor to make himselfpersona grata with those to whom he is accredited, if only therebyto gain the best opportunities for obtaining every possibleinformation and to be able to report events in a broad impartialspirit.Bennett went from New York to Salem, Massachusetts, to reporta murder trial, where he found the courtmuch opposed to reporters.

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The Influence ofDelane.The professional politician wishes an organ and theprofessional journalist wishes a seat in the legislative body toenforce his opinions and to aid in his advancement.William Black, likemany another author, felt that the criticisms of reviewers werealways either obvious or foolish and steadily maintained hisrule not to read the reviews of his books.It states the numberof pages or of sections appearing with each issue, and it oftenfurnishes information in regard to combination subscriptionswith other newspapers or magazines.Attempts at reconstruction fromsuch reports encounter at one end innumerable but needlessinaccuracies of statement, exaggeration, flippancy, frivolity,sensationalism, and many positive errors of omission and commission.How far is his pen at service of owner.External features of the newspaperBeliefs and opinions of the newspaperBusiness habits of the newspaper.

Newspaper proprietors have encouraged signature for the sake of increasing circulation throughthe éclat given by distinguished names and to this extent theyweaken the authoritativeness of the press.Most of all, the advertisementsemphasized the investment character of the loans and theybecame a text for many a sermon preached against waste andextravagance and in favor of thrift, saving, and the rainy day.Sancho Panza, following by an attraction he cannot resist that poor, mad, scorned, suffering, sublimeenthusiast, themodern spirit; following it, indeed, with constantgrumbling, expostulation, and opposition, with airs of protection,of compassionate superiority, with an incessant byplay of nods,shrugs, and winks addressed to the spectators; following it, inshort, with all the incurable recalcitrancy of a lower nature, butstill following it?Press of that date.XXXForgery of Parnell letters.These are all the unconscious representations of thelife of the wealthy, illustrated through the appeals of businesshouses for the patronage of the rich.The full text of the statute is given.

This is in part explained bythe breaking down of the barriers that have separated denominations and even religions, in part by the growing secularization ofthe Church, in part by the growing interest of the secular pressin the affairs of the Church.But the more these writers flourished the more vigorously were they prosecuted by Parliament,a controversy that was kept up for half a century.Figaro et ses devanciers.Modern caricature is essentiallyjournalistic, and it appears regularly in special weeklies and asa daily cartoon in the newspaper.Moldauia, and n many into Hungarians in Newhouſelwill nor grant to geild, buewulraHungaria, co withſtand the Emperor of Germaose ifhe sc.

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Frontier, Pioneer, Path Finder, Log Cabin, Plow Boy,Landmark, Guide, Guide Post, Scout.CAMPBELL, DuncanCAMPBELL, John, fl.Cullochis given in Correspondence ofMacvey Napier, pp.They are due to avariety of causes and while they detract from the strict accuracyof the illustration, they are for the most part unimportant inthemse,themselvesand they are readily corrected.The interest in the press shown by Napoleon Iand by Napoleon III seems indeed but the culmination in imperialcircles of the desire of every Frenchman to have his own newspaper.

Are men and women out of employment?AGRLIBRARYCO!The Cabinet, however, soon took the alarm, and although the censorship was unknown to the Hungarian law, prohibited the printing and publication of the reports.AND THE HISTORregard to business, social, military, and political conditions incontemporary Greece through an examination of a file of Athenian newspapers by one not familiar with modern Greek.The question really in the last analysis resolves itself into one ofnational differences.Men and Manners, pp.

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Absence of proportion in reports.Touldurs horlerden thallwhen hewould have giuenit in writing, he contd oor docx, comehether, yeſterday about 2 the clocke a nighecherecams hocher to what end weknow nor, buc all theCapcaines thatwere here in the Towne, were ſent for cocheFrom Venicethe 21 of line 1621.Advantage of social neglect of war correspondent.RTEEN DAYSnped below.It is interesting to note that in October, 1916, an advertising conventionto promote church attendance was held in New Haven, Connecticut, underthe joint auspices of the leading clergymen of the city and the PublicityClub of the Chamber of Commerce.Reasons for dislike felt by army.

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Boer War, the complaint wasmade that a multitude of correspondents was continually underfoot wherever there was a field telegraphic wire, competing withLord Roberts to send news home, tapping his wires, and magnifying their own importance.New York Tribune,August 28, 1914.So the courting of prominent advertisersis every day more and more the preoccupation of a newspaper manager andhe is apt to listen too favourably to any representations made by strongmonied interests and himself to exercise a corresponding pressure on theeditorial side of the enterprise.Bacon, An Historical Digest of the ProvincialPress.CHAPTER ITHE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NEWSPAPERUniversal desire for news.Cartoons Magazine, on Gillray, 408.

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Atkins, The Life of Sir William Howard Russell, II, 153.But the very nature of the press prevents it from representingpublic opinion, even in the imperfect way in which it may besaid to be represented by its regularly chosen delegates in alegislative body.American press was out of all proportion to themere numbers of its readers.If no favors were shown the early correspondent andno opportunities given him, he had at least the opportunity ofmaking opportunity for himself.Recent writers have pressed the point still fartherand have found a still more ominous development in the controlling influence the prime minister has come to exert in the Houseof Commons and in his consequent heirship to a controllinginfluence over a large part of the press.The press in high life.

Boer War on the identical lines asthose actually adopted and successfully carried out by LordRoberts.Even if they have suffered modern methods of treatmentwill renew their lives with no damage to texture.Last night the college met for the annual signing of Christmascards.Importance of news collecting agencies.Theytransmit important information, explanations, and apologies,correct misapprehensions, announce policies, improvementsplanned, and public hearings on them, give public notice of exoneration by courts, and point out opportunities of a noncommercial character.But although a government may be behind all of theseclasses of advertising, the appealmade through each class differsand hence they are in reality fundamentally unlike.

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It is interesting to note the early opposition to this check, now universallywelcomed by the press as one of its chief business assets and advertised byit as such.AbrahamLincoln scarcely atoned for the years of caricature preceding, especially sinceit has recently been shown how divided was the sentiment of the Punchstaff.Fromthe present indications it appears that either Roosevelt orvention.No similar problem has been presented to the American federal government andhence the members of the press have had free access to Congressexcept during the executive sessions of the Senate.But when a newspaper has refused complimentary tickets andinstructed its critic to purchase them, the theater manager hassometimes refused to sell them to any representative of the paper.The article de fond266267.Coe, New York EveningPost, October 1, 1908.

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Collective advertisements 31 and international advertisementsare again significant illustrations of the growing spirit of cooperation.It must be noted, however, that illustrationtends naturally to humor and caricature, and that it is often more difficultto find material for a reconstruction of simple, normal life.THETRIBUNE guarantees to pay your money back upon request.The greater number of thesedevices are seemingly used to increase circulation.An account is given in the New York EveningPost, October 22, 1915.

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Barrel and Box, 48.This man has made a certain paint a householdword.Connection of the newspaper with the past.Iowa, newspaper business declaredunessential industry in, 255.The early editorial in America.

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But the reporter may often render a very real service to thecause of justice.All the Papers has many clever satires on the way thesame illustration may be made to serve a dozen different ends.It may bewidely distributed throughout Italy with a caption to indicate that they werepictures of citizens of Fiume voting in favor of annexation to Italy.Journalists are said to be much sought after by the British armyauthorities because they make good officers, by reason of the initiative andresource that they have to show constantly in their civil occupation.How should younger brothers have maintained themselves, thathave travelled, and have the names of countries and captains withoutbook as perfect as their prayers?Correspondence of Macvey Napier, pp.Essential differences are found between the country and themetropolitan press.

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It takes an active interest in theselection of sites for school building and in the letting of contractsfor their erection and equipment.It must be obvious that illustrations, both those intended tomake others see and thus reproduce other scenes and other times,as well as those designed to provoke thought and thus influenceopinion are of the greatest value to the historian.The special reasons that he gives seem to sum up the question particularlywell.The occasional correspondent is not regularly attached to the press, but sends to it letters on subjects which heis specially well qualified to treat.It is the illustration in particular that enlarges the social circleand that shows everywhere the tendency towards luxury,views of spacious homes, summer residences, city hotels; distantcountries reached by luxurious railway trains and steamer service;Two members of the Punch staff have shown the still more extensiveuse that may be made of Punch in reconstructing the past.How could people, who never read anything butnewspapers, have any genuine knowledge of any subject on earthor much imagination of anything beautifulin the heavens?If the foreign press correspondence has at times seemed to the editor the least satisfactorypart of the product of the newspaper press, at least a partialexplanation may be found in the mutual relations of press correspondents and governments.

The announcements of church services, of church fairs, suppers, dinners,breakfasts, and socials, of personals relating to clergymen of localor national reputation all help in establishing friendly relationships between the press and the Church, increasing friendlinessmeans growing circulation, and growing circulation meansexpansion of advertisements.Political caricature has ulterior motive.The New York Railways Company, theThird Avenue Railway Company, the Interborough RapidTransit Company, and the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Companyall stated their position through advertisement at the time ofthe street car strike, and through the same means assured thepublic of their determination to run cars in spite of the strike.Pitt, William, the Elder.Dooley on the news.The House of Lords was also concerned with parliamentaryreporting and in 1880 it conducted an exhaustive inquiry on thesubject, although the inquiry largely turned on the question ofhow to provide more adequate accommodations in the House ofLords for the increasing number of reporters.

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Weekly has already reached a regular issue ofmore than sixty thousand copies and the editions printed are steadily increasing.James, The Influence of the Press, pp.On the other hand, the Spanish war correspondents,long before the fever broke out, represented the Americantroops as dying of fever by thousands and encouragement wasthus spread abroad in Spain.That thepress itself often realizes these difficulties is evident from thepublicity not infrequently given to various measures attemptingto correct at least a part of the difficulty.The public library oncehad similar methods, arranging its books on its shelves accordingto sizes and loaning them out for periods that also correspondedto their dimensions.Editorial changes of manuscript.It has been clearly shown that the press can notgive space to news that does not interest more than a third of itsreaders and omniscience is needed to determine what this is.

Sulzer, Governor, varying accounts ofaddress by, 156.Dell, Robert, expelled from France, 186.See Punch Staf Papers, from the Sydney Punch.But in time evenopponents of the reporters were won over.FRANCKLIN, ThomasFRANKLIN, Benjamin172117061784FRANKLIN, FabianFRANKLIN, Sir John18531824?Literature of American History, No.He has frequently forgotten that he is theguest of the army and can claim no right to follow its operations.

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Life of Samuel Johnson, Dent ed.Interviews still part of newspaper.Another reprint with deliberate intent to deceive was an issue of Punch put on the market in October, 1914, through German influence.Rover, Fido, and Sport are no longer appropriateand such names disappear in favor of fancy names or those taken frompopular personages.Intelligencer, Leeds, 97, 251.

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It is also not always understood that the work of the editor extends far beyond the range of his own paper.In reviewing, only a brief analysis, with extracts,should be given, withoutmuch praise or censure, to avoid giving offence toother publishers.England; but it may be questioned whether the Quarterly Review has anymore expectation than the Edinburgh that the writings of Landor willsurvive, except as curiosities of literature.Outlook, November 30, 1912, 102: advertising section.To this discovery Dr.May incur enmity of employers.

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This spirit is revealed bothby the true and by the false accounts given by the press.General reasons for questioning its authoritativeness.Brodrick, Memories and Impressions, 1831 to 1900, pp.Unconsciously this same idea has been the basis of the procedureof the historian since he has often apparently believed that themore difficult it is to find material the more worthy of credenceit is when found.The office when openedincluded an editorial staff, the members of which acquaintedthemselves with the contents of the London, country, colonial,and foreign papers, and thus gave a complete service of generaland foreign news.It is a common complaint on the partof the representatives of the English press in Paris that theirletters are mercilessly mutilated in the editorial room in London.

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Travelling gentlemen, newspapercorrespondents, and all that race of drones, are an encumbranceto an army; they eat the rations of fighting men, and do no workat all.Charles Lowe much resentedthe misrepresentations of England given to the German press byits correspondents in London 29 and it was in England a longstanding grievance.Mutatis mutandis,such accounts are of almost daily occurrence in the papers of thesmaller cities all over the country.No red tape,no quibbling.Histoire, la Fantasie et la Fatalité.Forbes himself says that while MacGahan was head and shouldersabove him in descriptive power, he was superior to MacGahan in organization.

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But for the purposes of the historian somethingmore is needed.International Cartoons of the War.Reasons for dislike of correspondents by War Office.Troops, is enormously exaggerated in the London papers.From Lyou the 6 of lune 1671.Englandby any centre of intelligent and urbane spirit, but rather stimulated by coming in contact with a provincial spirit.

No contemporary newspaper giving an account of theMechlenburg Declaration of Independence had been known,and it had long been a desideratum, but what purported to bea facsimile of the Cape Fear Mercury bearing the date of June3, 1775, and giving the Declaration was published in 1905.It hasseemed important to note these antecedents of the modern newspaper since many of its features have their lineage in theseprimitive types.Pulitzer School ofJournalism has annually awarded a prize to thenewspaper deemedto have contributed the most signal service to the press.Present appeal made to past.There are probably a hundred newspapers in the United States whichpay more or less attention to books, and a few of them include surprisinglygood book reviews.

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Lack of appreciation of his work.Simonis, The Street of Ink, pp.Foreign Express galloping in.Johnson at adinner given by Samuel Foote where he stated that he had himselfwritten themin a garret in Exeter Street.Butwhere, I think, the newspaper press sinks lowestis in its dealing with news.France to special correspondence.

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Thehistorian may be reasonably sure of the truth of what he readsbut he has no assurance that he has read the whole truth, or thatthe truth printed is in fair proportion to the truth not printed.The explanation or thedenial made by the one who has suffered from the fictitious interview may never overtake the published fabrication and the futurehistorian is in grave danger of being led astray if he unwittinglyaccepts the bogus interview.The qualities of Master Samuel Pepys which made him adangerous neighbor in 1670 make him valuable to an historian inBut press criticism of the drama is much more than the simplequestion of a favorable or an unfavorable judgment.Themob attacked thejail, broke the outer doors, and were pounding with sledge hammers on the inner door when the sheriff appeared with the posse.But he is silent on the point of recommending it for general adoption, though it might have commended itself to Hugo Münsterberg who complained bitterly ofhis experiences with interviews distorted, manufactured, andpatched together from disjointed sentences.Changes in character of illustration.

Dickens ora Thackeray comes once in a hundred years.The character and standing of the New York Times readers is such thatLost and Found advertisements appearing in its columns are productive ofa high percentage of results.Queen of, quoted, 433.New York EveningPost, August 8, 1914.The counterpart is found in the names given by the press todifferent sets ofmen whose interest in the public welfare has notbeen unquestioned.

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Whigs bore to Impey, and alsobecause his marvellous power of style blinded him to the effect which hislanguage produced.The college metfor the annual singing of Christmas carols.Arms, said he had repeatedly been urged to allow representatives of the Scotch and Irishto have seats in the gallery, but he had always fought against it.Advertisements used to influence public opinion.But this plan can scarcely be generally adopted or if adoptedit would not meet with universal acceptance.

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But the series of American commonwealths was less successful since it is impossible to separate the life and history of a state from that of the larger political unit of which it forms but a part.The newspaper, when unaffected by external control, becomeseverywhere a barometer indicating the fluctuating interests ofsociety and the changing expedients in ministering to them.Anonymity is the refuge for all literary and journalisticrascality.Jerdan and West End landlords.See also Censorship; Freedom ofthe press; Libel.

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War correspondent faces an impasse.Appeal to authority and precedent.Federal post office and the press.At length, determining to be no longer debarred from a share in so beneficial a project, a knot of them combined toseize our whole plan; and, without the least attempt to vary or improve it,began with the utmost vigour to print and circulate the London Magazine,with such success, that in a few years, while we were printing the fifthedition of some of our earliest Numbers, they had SEVENTY THOUSANDof their Books returned unsold upon their hands.Illustration an epitome of the press.Today impersonation requires accessoriessuch as scene, music, costume, ensemble, plot, and the like.

He finds material for his study of wars inscores of places in the daily press where formerly he dependedon the war correspondent alone.But when he challengedfriends or enemies of Germany to show him similar misrepresentations inGerman newspapers he might have expected the gauntlet to be picked up.See Bulletin of Labor Statistics, Washington, September 11, 1913, forspecial account of the welfare work connected with the Evening Post,New York City.It flourishes in everycountry where there is freedom of the press, while its field ofaction is limited where restrictions are placed on the press,except as these cartoons are directed against conditions elsewhere.Explanation of change in tendency.Labouchere, Diary of the Besieged Resident in Paris, every volumewritten by or about the genuine war correspondent is filled with illustrations of the difficulties of the work and of the inventiveness and resourcefulness that always enable the war correspondent to surmount them.National traits seen in illustration381.

American lines, standing under a shadeto protect him from the sun and the rain.Russell are filled with accounts not simply ofthe inadequacy of the provision made for press correspondents, but of theabsolute lack of all provision for them.This is written specifically of the illustration, but it describes perfectlythe changes that are coming in the newspaper as a whole.These various reconstructions of the past and the presentthat have been made indicate the great opportunities affordedby the press for an insight unconsciously given into conditionsseldom consciously described.Life to their theaters,and in 1915 the dramatic critic of the New York Times wasrefused admission to the Shubert theaters.

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Hiscomplaints have sometimes seemed entirely baseless.The parts of the press that are most obviously of immediateservice in reconstructing the past are the editorial, the illustrationand the advertisement.Ultimate control of policy.The church responsible for religious notices.Layard and the Constantinople correspondents.English periodical literature shows no subject that has engaged writersmore frequently than has that of anonymous criticism.Function of special correspondence.

It was Thomas Carlyle who felt that in England the responsibilities of the editor were equally serious.But the limitation on the authoritativeness of the press intime of war does not stop here.New York Times, November 25, 1916.Lehmann, Charles Dickens as Editor, pp.See Saunders and Otley.

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Montaigne discusses the origin in Essays, Bk.The illustrated advertisement is a frequent sinner of this type.Different tests must be applied to the various parts of the samenewspaper, as well as to the samenewspaper at different stagesof its history.Capcaines touching Colonell Franckom.Flam,very inany Chould be liure.

New Republic, October 23, 1915, 4: 299.Authors and adverse criticism.Tappan, Lewis, as editor of Journal ofCommerce, 370.Thelimousine in its turn is always illustrated in appropriate surroundings.The historian must prefer the signed article wheneverthe identification of the article adds authoritativeness, but whensignature has encouraged the reporter or the correspondent toroam far afield and to add to his report of news his own interpretation of news he must prefer anonymity.

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Doubtless that is always interesting; that is a matter not onlyinteresting to the Members, but it is interesting to outsiders.Pitt, in opposition to one of Mr.The student of history therefore finds in the very processes ofadvertising valuable records of the changing business standardsof the press as well as a raising of general business standards.Art deals in illusion.Münsterberg, Hugo, interviews of, distorted, 239.If a nice balance ispreserved between the business side of the newspaper thatrelieves editors from personal care and anxiety, and the editorialside that prepares material worthy of the best efforts of businessmanagers, then the perfect circle is achieved.But Scott himself had always liked the coverof anonymity and wrote to Sharpe concerning the Quarterlyauthorship a secret, and if you can get the accompanying notices published,one in the North American, and the other in the Evening Journal, withoutbetraying it, do so.

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XV, XIX, XIII, et seq.Meister, Die deutsche Presse im Kriege und später, pp.The full text of the arguments and the decisions in the Times suit isgiven in its issues of April 8, May 19, May 25, June 19, July 10, 1915, andFebruary 23, 1916.Enterpriseof that date.London Times was at first5d; the abolition of the newspaper stamp duty in 1855 causedthe price to be lowered to 4d; later it was reduced to 3d; in 1914to id; but it has returned to 3d.And there is no sense in noticing in oneissue a disproportionate number of books published by onehouse.

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An account of it,giving every fact, was written in six lines by the president of the college andsent to the press.The danger which besets allWar Correspondents, when operating individually, is that they will giveway to the temptation to embroider their accounts, adding trimmings ofimagination to the facts, and using conjecture to supply deficiencies inthings which they have not seen.The Portuguese people shouldtherefore be cautious of taking English newspapers as a text ofthe estimation in which the Portuguese army was held in England, where its character stood high and was rising daily.Napier, Selection from the Correspondence of the late MacveyNapier, Esq.United States Employment Service, 87.

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Publicity, On CivilLiberty and Self Government, pp.Cave had usedin the exchange of political news.General derision of plan.Pegasus and Pygmalion, the Sistine Chapel,da Vinci, and Benvenuto Cellini and every great character andimportant association in history are conjured up by the imagination and become a part of the daily newspaper.Coloncisioynewith him, andmake greus preparation for theror; it appeares that the Marquis of lagerendorsnakes great warte, while chey rec itwillbeno otherwiſe, God helpechempreparation for warre, andchac with him in the young Earle of in their iuft caure andſend them good lue.Democrat, prepaid circulation of,_ 45.The prison journal at Sing Sing was for some years calledThe Starof Hope, it then became the Star Bulletin, and in 1920 was renamed TheSing Sing Bulletin.

Macaulay, History of England, I, chap.See alsoWatterson, Henry.The beginning of the open controversy over theadmission of press representatives to the House of Commons isfound in a plot laid by John Wilkes in 1771.Authoritativeness as affected by anonymity or signature.The American Baptist, Catholic Witness, The Churchman, The Congregationalist, The Methodist, The Universalist, are a few illustrations.

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The use of the loop enclosing the sentiment of the figure depicted wasabandoned in Europe where artists drew pictures that told their own story.Hansard, May 7, 1822.With a few conspicuous exceptions the use of the illustration bythe daily press has become almost universal, while the weekliesthat are founded primarily for the sake of their illustrationscontinue to multiply.The recent war has been prolific in the number and variety ofthe newspapers that issued from camp and trench and field andcruiser.Schools of journalismcould make no greater contribution to the authoritativeness ofthe press than the development of the perfect news circle fromthe opposing forces of speed and reliability.

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Caspar Whitney, New York Tribune, February 3, 1918.During the war it wasnoticeable that into the notices of engagements and marriagesthere was incorporated much information in regard to themilitary affiliations of the contracting parties.The press is justly criticized for making general statements unsupported by facts.The success of the press in collecting funds in 1863 forthe relief of the Lancashire sufferers was praised by contemporaries, especially since it was in striking contrast with thefailure of the imperial government to relieve the distress causedby the French cotton famine.France is suppressed, and what is published is headed with anotice, that as the source is English the truth is questionable.The daily and the weekly periodical press haveaccepted and favored signature only in part, while the monthlyand quarterly magazines and reviews have come to accept itwholly.Anexcellent survey of press agencies is given in Paul Eltzbacher, Die Presseals Werkzeug der Auswärtigen Politik, especially on the side of their opportunities for circulating propaganda.

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The contemporaneous review and the later reviewmust necessarily differ, not simply because the tastes of criticsand readers differ from generation to generation, but chieflybecause of the varying values placed on different features.Johns and Thomases as, in more humble circles, they have been described by Oliver Wendell Holmes.It is inevitable that with the changing characteristics of theeditor a change in the editorial should result.The hostility of the courts towards press reporters was no lessin evidence during the same period in America.His various volumes of war correspondence are filled with illustrationsshowing his remarkable ability in forwarding his despatches.New York Evening Post, October 8, 1910.

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Not until about 1890do we find the beginnings of the enormous volume of advertisingmatter that has threatened to overwhelm both periodical andreader.McCann, Sagamore SociologicalConference, 1912.Borders ofBohemia, that there hadOve of Amberghe, in the vipper.It notes with patrioticpride the service flag with 2520 stars in front of the Brace Memorial Newsboys Home.It is well knownthat doctrines expressing policies tend to harden into dogmaspresented as truths.

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The Duke of Wellington had held in nohigher favor the English press of the same period.CHAPTER XITHE EDITOR AND THE EDITORIALDevelopment of the editorial.The school of journalism has as yet shown more interest in thetechnical process of producing a newspaper than it has in thepress as a resultant of this process and it has thus seemed to fallshort of the success possible to it.Charleston Courier, Rhodes on, 471.Review, incorroboration of these lies, would be disseminated through thewhole of the United States; and thatmy contradiction will neverbe heard of.The most important result of a situation thatthreate engagepress, Ithreatened international complications seemed to be the cancelling of adinner engagement for Lord Northcliffe at the British Embassy in Washington.

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The press may tell the truth, but it may not necessarily tellall the truth about everything.Wcillenberg, there he lies yet and roves fromonly uppon Praghe.Even so, it is easy to show the incorrectnessof the initial assumption, and to cite more than one illustration ofelevator accidents in department stores carrying full page advertisements that are given full and adequate reports in the citypapers.That is not independence.He closed his experiment without any illusions as to thefuture of his profession.SAMUEL FREERKINGSTON UCSAMUEL TREENSONON THE DEATH OPCOUNTY.

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Advertisement in New YorkEvening Post, January 10, 1917.Ifhe is a man of engaging personality and fulfills all the requirementsprescribed for special correspondents and is admitted to socialcircles deemed the highest, temptation also lies in that direction.Fonblanque determined to republish them in a book.It is also essential to discriminateclearly between journalism, the technical process by whicharticles for the press are produced, and the press, the completedproduct of this process.New England Magazine, clientele of, 50.Libel laws, however, carry with them no guarantee of the wisdom of printing articles that may be true in themselves, but nevertheless may convey a wrong impression.

New York papers set forth the position of the distributorsand gave a mass of important information in regard to the scientific and hygienic handling of milk as well as the industrialquestions involved.Was it possible that the stone which the builders refused had become the head stone of the corner?Dictionary of National Biography, 16: 102.Independent journalism, Pebody on,34; White on, 57; at times to be discounted, 90.An evening paperof the same date described the affair and stated that damage tothe amount of several hundred dollars was reported to have beendone and added that five signal lanterns had also been destroyed.The repudiatedinterview may be true to fact, yet it can not stand as authoritativeif it is denied by the person giving it.The State Editorial Association of Pennsylvania has urged the adoptionof this plan and it was considered by the Canadian Press Association at itsannual meeting in Toronto, 1914.

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The standardization of both news andinterpretation does not necessarily connote the suppression ofeither.Influences to secure honest advertisements.The Nineteenth Century, No.Whether these criticisms of the authoritativeness of the pressare justified by fact or not, they can not be ignored and thehistorian must ask what precautions have been taken by thepress itself to minimize them or to prevent their future occurrence.McClure, History of American College Journalism.Grant, James, cited, 265.

Orthodoxy and heterodoxy in America.Lettres Persanes, Lettre CXXX.May 15, 1916, but to my knowledge it has not beenpublished and hence printed citation can not be given.More than a year later he stated that the British governmenthad been carrying on an advertising campaign of such a nature and extent as had neverbefore been undertaken by any nation.Tribune, June30, 1875.It is interesting to note a certain timidity that still prevails in somelocalities.

New York Railways Co.June 13, 1718, that show this.Delane, 188;Cook on, 329; on The Times, 330;and Suez Canal, 407.Strafford have failed on the stage, as they explain why theGreek drama and Shakespeare survive.The special correspondent on himself.New York daily press, October 19, 1916.

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Atkins, Life ofSir William Howard Russell, I, 193.Edward Bulwer says that Voltaire complained that booksellers inFrance and Holland guided the tone of the periodical reviews.Parnelldeclared in the House of Commons that evening that the letterwas a forgery.Inaccuracy of the press inevitableDifference between accuracy andauthoritativeness.Reviews in the daily press.

Muchof it, in its general shrewdness, competency, and accuracy, is ofgreat and permanent historical value a living picture of atheatrical era.Spinola vvil layhisepon che famemeecing day.Allbills payableon demand.Political parties are ranged on oppositesides and their support of ruling authorities or opposition to themis organized through the press.The newspaper was at firstentirely unassociated with the name of any individual except thatof the printer.Historians were some years ago surprised, even perplexed, by the appearance of the first volume of an unheralded history deal ing with America.

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This brief statement was expanded by some papers intoa column of description filled with harrowing details and everywhere itassumed various forms.But they were too firmly entrenched in public lifeto make it wise to prosecute them and efforts against them wereabandoned.He suggested that acommittee should be chosen and elected among the leadingjournalists who should be empowered to prosecute, and enabledto do so by a fund specially set apart for that purpose from therevenues of the country, in order to punish and put down whatwas at once discreditable to their profession and hurtful to thecommunity at large.It gives terms of subscription, sometimes announcing higher rates when the subscription is not paid in advance and sometimes stating that thesubscription must invariably be paid in advance; it states wherepapers are on sale locally, in other American cities, and in foreigncities, and in what foreign hotels and offices the paper may beread; and it often names its branch offices, as also newsdealers,postmasters, and other agents authorized to receive subscriptions.With every possibleopportunity to gain information in advance and at the time,often no preparation whatever has apparently been made, andthe reports show not only ignorance of the events to be commemorated but a general rudimentary ignorance.The New York Herald was specially active in securing the denial; seeissues of October 23 and October 26, 1880, and broadside issued by it.America and the Americans from a French Point of View, pp.

These changes seem to create the impression, even among newspaper men themselves, that the editorial isdeclining in importance.The Sphinx,the Pyramids, and notable Egyptian columns form the background of illustrated advertisements.An obvious limitation of the press lies in the headline.Equally necessary is it toremember the variations among editors and owners and even thevariations in themoods and policies of individual editors.Cited fromDaily Telegraph, August 19, 1914.The Company gave instances ofcarelessness or of actual dishonesty in the administration ofdifferent estates, gave the points at issue in the suits at law thatfollowed, the decisions of the Court, and the explicit reference tothe legal reports giving these decisions.Well, Sirs,I have a thought I will not exchange for fifty guineas.

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It is almost inevitable that material thus hurriedly gathered and publishedshould be filled with errors.Unfortunately, the spirit of tyranny has not been confined toyouth and the periodical reviews of the nineteenth century showhow largely the personal element entered into the criticism of.The Times in an action for libel,the matter being settled out of court.Duke of Savoy mullersmaoy Suuldiets, and they know charge there peeces, stree that they were ſent iarn che Caftie,and therero ollo are ſome of the Burgers with chem that layhis in ent.In France, journalism has apparently been the great highwayleading to political office.

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GeneralRcdiferens, whichvvhich aremult vvayte for the next Polt.The name of a paper varies in different countries at differenttimes.This mutual dependence explains thelarge number of reporters congregated in every capital city, as italso explains why executive messages, legislative acts, speeches,documents of every description, are sent to the press in advanceto be released at a specified hour.Slovenly or flaunting attireusually indicates thatmental processes are untrustworthy.These often predispose itsreaders in its favor or prejudice them against it, and under normalconditions weigh for or against it when its authoritativeness istested.Such pictures were drawn by artists who arrived in Constantinople after thenews of the outbreak on the Ottoman Bank in 1896 had spread to WesternEurope and they were commissioned to supply the demand for pictures ofatrocities.

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McKenzie, The Mystery of the Daily Mail, pp.Thus the illustrationbecomes of value in exposing the falseness of claimsmade throughignorance or pretense.An endowed newspaper, many have believed, would be independent of subscription lists, of advertisers,of party politics, and of all the millstones that hang on the neckof the newspaper.It is probable that the difficulty is inherent in the nature of the subject.Marshal of France1837?New York Tribune, January 30, 1919.Germans of their speedy entrance into Paris, intheir prophecy of the conquest of the British fleet by the submarines, 24 in their missionary zeal for spreading kultur, andin their attribution offear and cowardice to the Allies.

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Press gives publicity to charges against it.The difference in timeexplains why an eventmay receive a few lines in an Eastern paperand adequate notice in a Western paper.Louis Napoleon neverceased during his entire reign writing articles and brochures.Newspapers were small, unattractive, and inadequate, and the overworked editor, who probably was also theprinter, at important times had the assistance of unpaid contributors; the clergyman, the lawyer, the scholar were glad towrite special letters to the press and thus have a channel for theexpression of their individual opinions.The consideration of the personality of a newspaper also includes the question as to how far the paper as a whole is normaland how far it must be deemed eccentric or abnormal.Although I had many other things to do, I knocked off the present volume within the space of little more than a fortnight.On one such occasion, he wrote a severecriticism of the part of the leading actor.

Symon gives an account of a speech in praise of the Irish potatopurporting to have been made by Mr.Massingham, The London Daily Press, 1892.The special correspondenthas for the most part not only lived up to his responsibilities,but he has appreciated his opportunities.Illustrations of thisare frequent.The symbolism developed by the recent war, asillustrated by Belgium represented as a prostrate or faintingwoman; Germany by a dachshund with helmet and in arrogantattitude; the Kaiser with halo in armed automobile, has all beensignificant of contemporaneous opinion among the Allies, butwith the close of the war it has become obsolete.

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Editor Being the Life, Letters, and Diaries of Shirley Brooks,London, 1907.Two processes are involved for the historian.Consciousmistranslation may explain other errors, as was possibly truewhen in September, 1914, a dispatch was received in English inNew York City quoting an English naval officer who, when theKaiser was a child, had once carried him on board a British warship.Objections to reporting at first general.See also Prensa, La.

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Marshall in Protestant Journalism.It is important for the press to publishas news both the important and the trifling transactions of thegovernment, while the government needs and sometimes seeksthe support of the press.Moreover, while the modern newspaper may oftenseem cruel to the living in its fierce denunciations of men whodiffer from it, it usually adheres to the spirit and the letter ofthe old injunction de mortuis nil nisi bonum.The power of the newspaper in France differs from that of theEnglish newspaper, in that it seems to act more on the government and theparliament than on public opinion.New York Evening Post, August 26, 1916.Globe, Le, critics of, 304.

The adoption of the policy of rewarding editors bygift of office that was adopted by Andrew Jackson and longcontinued by his successors never commended itself to any exceptto the often unworthy recipients.By our loftwehave newet outof Frauoce, that they of theTowne of Weydeo chat Mould have given 4000.It unifies society on national lines and thus thepress of each country has developed in its own characteristicdirection.In 1922, the governor of Nebraska stated that publicity throughadvertising had made the State prosper.The English coffee houseNews facilities in New England.At one time prison journals weresheets giving the inmates such news from the outside world as itwas thought wise for them to have, while the new prison journalism has given the outside world news from behind the bars.

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Gardiner, War Lords; and in numerous other volumes ofcollected editorials.The NationalMagazine, cited by theNew York Evening Post, NovemberII, 1916.Shall the editorcontinue to support him, pointing out his good qualities for thesake of the end in view, or shall he denounce Mr.Wheatley, Literary Blunders, pp.The new lydings out of Italie aree ncOut of Ceulin, the21.Whigs, Brougham opposed to, 283.

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The Associated Press, as the oldest, largest, and most farreaching of these agencies in America, has been most in thepublic eye and the greatest number of criticisms have beendirected against it.See Supplement,Comines, Philippe de, quoted, 195.For ever and for ever when I move.LXI; John Macdonald,ed.Direct appeals against entrance into war and againstpreparedness were practically answered, not by facts and argument, but by indirect appeals to loyalty, patriotism, and honor.

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The interview may often be given to accomplish definite political ends.The editorial and public opinion.Opposite literary tendencies seen.The reporter has also been influenced by the general conditionsof the press.Fowler, a civil engineer,showed that the Canal was a success and that the sand of thedesert was a myth, public opinion changed.

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Single MothersA place for you Single Mothers to find encouragement and strength in yourdaily lives.The advertisements of postum having apparently had an effect onthe sale of coffee, the coffee dealers replied by advertisements showing thebeneficial effects of coffee.The interviewwas published in the Daily Telegraph, October 28, 1908, and wasdesigned to conciliate England, but its chief result was to angerGermany where it led to innumerable controversies and investigations.Roman proconsuls as dead as smelts, every oneof them.Personal characteristics of periodicals.

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The general strengthening of all newspapers in a business wayis in large part due to the wholesome effect theadvertiser has hadon its business management.All of these inventions and improvements in the collection ofcopy, in its transmutation into the newspaper, and in the facilitywith which thenewspaper is placed in the hands of the reader havemade the newspaper a great business enterprise and at the sametime they have thereby increased enormously its sphere of influence.Five years later this columnwas taken over by Eugene Field.Caricature in time of war.Griswold and, 297; onstamp duty reduced, 136.Westminster Institution, alsoillustrates this point.

Yet here again the report may be conditioned by time andplace.Health boards a source of information.Government who stopped the journal at the post office, butcould not stop its circulation by messengers among the villages.Each paper may have its own constituency, butas a rule it ignores, and perhaps to a certain extentmust ignore,public opinion outside of that constituency.This is an instance of the reckless modein which the business of journalism is conducted here.

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Neither its authors nor the public then perceivedhow false and dangerous is the very principle of such a workof a small established corps of men undertaking to pronounce onworks in regard to each one of which the reviewer is, probably,less competent than the author, who is most likely to know moreof his subject than those who have studied it less.New York Evening Post,November 21, 1908.New York Evening Post, May 27, 1916.The responsibility for these permanent features of the newspaper is thus readily recognized and it becomes as absolute aslies within the range of human responsibility.It can, however, condescend to the assumed tastesof its readers; and it handles little matters as an evening journal must do,though always with great seriousness and dignity.Primarily, of course, the public is to blame.EnglishInstitute of Journalists ranged over the entire field of literary,dramatic, and political criticism, but it apparently changed littlethe current opinion in regard to literary criticism.

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Redfield, Secretary, letter of, quoted,newspapers awarded15;351.The omission of one in thenumbered series seemed to indicate a fear on the part of theadvertisers that it carried libellous matter.Barred from the field of war itself, little reporting or descriptionof actual warfare is possible.But the editorial at least is not doomed, and it takes on a newlease of life, although not necessarily of influence, as new formsof increasing its circulation are devised.Difference in war correspondents.Bussey gives many illustrations of the devices used by reportersto manufacture news in a dull time, or to save themselves thetrouble of going personally to the scene of an importantmeeting,or to gain entrance to a meeting from which all strangers weresupposedly excluded.The death, July 24,1917, of Manton Marble, the editor of the World at the time of its suspension, has recalled the story to the daily press of that date.

The newspaper and the library.Porcupine, questionable advertisementsPhillips, Wendell, quoted, 85.Not at home to unwelcome visitors.In a western state, a bill before the legislature to increase the numberof trainmen on every railway train was referred back to the voters of thestate.In every possible way the newspaper uses its authority to avert the publication of false statements sent it by those who are not members of its staff but who seek to shield themselves under its panoply.

One of the difficult problems connected with literary criticismand book reviewing is that of the comparative merits of thesigned and the unsigned review.There exists arigorous censorship not only of actual war news but of muchthat in ordinary times would be published without question.Lorie and let her know where you found the link.Marquis, and preſently pults were rentinto the quaner, andmillionsalready bia rent out of Spaine to reſtore Valcelnia chepeople willed to come.But the playacted on the stage becomes something entirely different and itmust be criticized as such.

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This at least has been the opinion of aformer court reporter.Thomas,Fiſty Years of Fleet Street, pp.The advertisement, moreperfectly than any other record at his command, reveals to thestudent of history the hidden springs of the social order, it showshim the forces that for good or evil move mankind to thoughtand action.Le Fleming of Rydal Hall, Westmoreland.Lynn Linton to reviewfor All the Year Round.

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Government use of advertisements.Frankly,I do not see that thatmatters one straw.Theproblem of squaring the circle is not more hopeless than is thatof harmonizing all these mutually contradictory elements in thework of the war correspondent.His Autobiography is filled with accounts of thewranglings of editors and of publishers and owners.Reports of Coronation of EdwardVariations due to weather.Collective activities of the press.

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Act of1870, the working classes were appealed to by the press, politicalconditions growing out of the Boer War had fostered discussion,and speed and business efficiency rendered it possible to fill theneed.The explanation of the prolonged and obstinate opposition ofParliament to the presence of reporters during their sessionsmustbe found in the theory that lies behind the English government,it has been a government by classes instead of by themasses.Adamswas at that time the editor of the North American Review, then published byMr.War itself is changing, histories of war are changing,and the war correspondent is changing with them.William Howard Russell was theguest of Lincoln and he was a member of the party of the Princeand Princess of Wales on their tour in Egypt and the Near East.

Long Island Railroad, 345.John Porter,Sumner, Franklin, and Burnside.The name signedpresumably means that the ostensible writer assumes the responsibility for it, yet this can not always be true since articlesare hurriedly read, or possibly not read at allby those purportingto write them.Anonymity as an element in thepersonality of the press usuallycenters around the question of the signed or the unsigned review,50 Letters from and to Charles Kirkpatrick Sharpe, I, 359.The converse of the group interview is the collective interview, where a large number of interviewers meet collectively animportant person and gain from him the information desired.The supposed limitation exerted by theadvertiser does not prevent the curious anomalies found in political advertising.New York Times, August 19, 1914.

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North German Gazette, 240.By means of a scaffolding a reporter constantly chalked bulletinsconcerning the war.Catling gives an account of the interest aroused by the introductionof the Hoe press into Europe.The political caricatures of Hogarth and his quarrel with hisquondam friend, John Wilkes, are discussed by Filon in chap.He remained on the BrooklynDaily Eagle nearly two years, but left apparently owing todisagreements with the owner and proprietor on the question of the extension of slavery into the recently acquiredterritories.Can you account why the Times has not deigned to mention it?Consequently they are presented with separate and conspicuousheadings, and there is no necessary connection between them.

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UnitedStates in all directions, facilities which include talks with leadingstatesmen, inspection of military and naval work, and visits tothe centers of war industries in various parts of the country.The public that patronizes music,painting, sculpture, dancing, all other forms of art has ceased topatronize the theater, and this has led to a decadence of dramaticcriticism.The numerous associations for therelief of sufferers from fire, flood, earthquake, famine, disease, andwar reach the philanthropic through the advertisement.It, so to speak, set up for itself.Here are some interesting signs you may have never seenWomenof the Wild West Shows.These influences are theprimevalbed rock and as such they are his chief records.Womens neral interesting Info.

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Kaiser confessed that he wasbeaten.Francis, John Francis, II, 239.Stephen on, 285; on journalists,445; on special correspondents, 450.In no manner can we so well obtain, at a rapid glance, a view ofthe salient points of generations that have passed as by consultingthose small voices that have cried from age to age from the pages of thepress, declaring the wants, the losses, the amusements, the moneymaking eagerness of the people.The local report a fertile source of error.The present volume considers the essential characteristics of the newspaper as they affect the historian and as they are made known by the newspaper itself, unaffected by official control.The illustration, however, is of two varieties,one leads to concrete, scientific, absolute fact, while the otherleads to illusion that is equally true but is reached by a differentroute.

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It comprised not only pleas for armyvolunteers and loans ofmoney, but also condemnation of extravagance inevery form.Queen of Greece on, 225;interview in, repudiated, 236; itseditor invited by Lord Lyndhurst,255; mutual relations of employeesof, 255; American Civil War and,Telegraph, Macon, Ga.Tis the curse of an editor that he must always be right.Journalism is the criticism of the moment at the moment, andcaricature is that criticism at once simplified and intensified by aplastic form.Smith, Munroe, onerrancy, 60.Caution needed by historian.Advertisers have been quick to note the change andhave been ready to meet the press more than half way.

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He mustgive credit to its desire to guarantee its statements whereverand whenever and by whom questioned.Failure to register public opinion.If he concludes that theearth is inhabited by two races of men, a race of stumbling,bungling, unhappy failures and pessimists, and a race of vigorous,successful, radiant optimists, we can scarcely blame him.SirJohn Hawkins reports Dr.Romanticism, press rendered service tohistory of, 107.

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Untilsome such law as the proposed Vermont statute is enacted, thevictimized editor or publisher has no recourse or redress.The line thatdivides the special correspondent from the propagandist is attimes invisible.The correspondence between Mr.Attitudeof historian towards interview.The earlier conception ofthe critic as one who has been thrown to the discard is assuredlyyielding to the hopeful view that finds in him capacity for growthand an inclination to improve this opportunity.

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Good acting will bring people to a play no matterhow bad it is as a life lesson, as plot, as scene; plays fail almost inproportion to the quality of the acting.France in December, 1917.New MoonA fab magazine for youngwomen and girls!The translations given in the collected edition are for the most partquite different fromthe English lines that accompany, but do not alwaystranslate, the original mottoes.The school of journalism.New York Tribune, July 30, 1921.

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Imay think worth my saying.Avenarius in his Das Bild als Verleumder and attention was directed tothe peculiarly offensive features of the advertisement, while the complementary illustration of the machine itself was omitted.WireMany resources for women.De Tocqueville on the American editor.Indeed, for many a month I never understood that particular attribute ofmy unfortunate position, and I may say now in all sincerity and truth,I never knowingly made use of it.

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The reporter who thus includes in his report the source of his information has a near kinship with the historian who supports his statements with a footnote.President Wilson addressed the Associated Advertising Clubs of theWorld at their annual meeting in Philadelphia, June 29, 1916.ESOSTON UCUREPSATIEDATPuhelCOUNTY GAZETTE.The result of actual experience, whichit doubtless was, being taken from letters sent home by the author.Sundayissues of The Dallas Morning News and The Galveston Daily News.

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Marked contrasts are found between the daily, the weekly,themonthly and the quarterly, and between the representatives ofthese classes in the different countries.The advertisement wasused in an effort to prevent the sale of arms and ammunitionsto the Allies, 27 and residents of other countries have used theadvertisement to influence public opinion in times of emergency, 2836 The Republican National Publicity Committee, in the interests ofprotective tariff, reproduced in American papers a poster issued by theTariff Reform League of London; the Association to Resist English Domination of American Commerce issued an advertisement addressed to theSecretary of State in regard to the black list published by the Britishgovernment; the appearance of the Deutschland gave opportunity to directadvertisements against the Administration.Spingarn, The New Criticism, 1911.THE question of the authenticity of the material available forhis use is of primary importance to the historian.The Edinburgh Review, I need not tell you,ever has been attached to the Whig Party.Greece, dissemination of news in, 2;Queen of, on Russell, 225; ancientdrama of, 325; relief of, 338.

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But personality of paper independent of editor.Practically the only parts of the paper that arenot signed are the editorial, the despatches of the AssociatedPress, and the contributions of the local reporter.Limitations of the caricature.At the bottom of the page was the name of aLondon printer.The monthlies have for themost part paid comparatively littleattention to criticism, 23 and it is to the quarterlies that in general,especially in the early days of serious reviewing, the historianmust turn for information in regard to the reception accordednew works of literature.

Miller, Donn Piatt His Work and Ways, pp.In one letter to a publisher he had said that he thoughtpraise from a newspaper was contamination, and he would willingly agree to give half his pay to have his namekept out of thepublic prints.This is the view generally accepted and a memorial to Sir WilliamHoward Russell in the crypt of St.See Northcliffe, LordHarp, 48.Distribution of news on the Continent.

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Journalism and Literature, pp.Infallibility not claimed by or for the Associated Press.Criticism of government action that in times of peace would bedeemed entirely legitimate is considered in time of war perniciousand destructive.The difference between the sham critic and the real critic is that thelatter shows the reader how to look first for the intention of the book, andnext how to examine into the method employed in carrying out that intention.See alsoSociety journals.Local topics were largely the subjects of editorials somewhat later in the century.

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Over the Top, 49.Upon one occasion some observations were made upon one ofMr.The choir ascended thelibrary tower and under the stars sang carols to the collegewaiting below.The wars of Louis XIVgave them their great opportunity, for all hung on their lightestword and they were then in their element.And again similar conditions led to similar results.

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Proprietors of the Metropolitan DailyNewspapers and Weekly Newspapers,forged edition of, 420; election reformsfurthered by, 471; in World War, 472.The Well of English and the Bucket,pp.But in Petroniusit was the household accounts that were read.The very natureof their work precluded giving their readers an analysis of theirown methods of writing history, although these methods couldbe reconstructed from the histories themselves.Oriental Herald that dealt with Indian affairs; of the Verulam,a weekly scientific periodical; and in May he started the Argus, an eveningnewspaper.

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The venom inherent in the caricature becomes even more intense, and the humor of the cartoon jarsamid scenes of destruction.The historian can not trust tothe authoritativeness of the headline but must know the detailsof the article itself.This conclusion does not necessarily follow fromthe foregoing brief statement of varying theories of criticism; itdoes follow that no part of the press demands a more carefulanalysis than do all the component parts that make up its bodyof criticism, no part stands in greater need of caution beforeaccepting it without question.Relf, Frances Helen, joint author.See also Names of wars; SpecialWar Correspondent, Chap.The interview is changing and it is changing for the better.At the Second Hague Conference ayoung English reporter who spoke French like a Frenchman wasvery anxious to learn what had been said by a prominent delegatefrom Belgium.

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Duke of Wellington had protested against the freedomallowed Henry Crabb Robinson, sent out by the London Timesas its first specialwar correspondent, and he lost no opportunityof inveighing against all of the tribe.Turkey hissketches were not forwarded for six weeks.This aspect of newspaper activity in and of itself need givethe historian little concern.Tory, one loyal but moderate, one favored the Church, andone the Roman Catholic Church; one was warlike, one a pacifist,one democratic, and one seditious.The newspaper often yields to ill temper and vindictivenessand relentlessly persecutes men and measures to such an extentthat the persecution acts as a boomerang against the newspaperitself.The words newspaper, periodical, and press are often usedinterchangeably, as indeed is the case in this discussion of thesubject, yet it must again be remembered that the frequency orthe infrequency of the appearance of a periodical gives it certaincharacteristics that modify at different times and in various waysits use as historicalmaterial.

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It reached its climax in theadvertisements supporting or opposing candidates or partiesthat appeared over the signature of private individuals andpresumably at their personal expense, 23 and in the formation22 New York Times, February 5, 1917.Kladderadatsch each has its own appropriate, distinctive, recognizable symbol.Saunders, William, Central Press of,Searchlight, 47, 465.Among the early Greeks poetry and every other form of literature became the medium of exchange.It makes a distinction between news and business, and whileoften publishing free, as news, notices of births, marriages, anddeaths as well as certain classes of church notices, it prints atspecified rates per line all resolutions, cards of thanks, obituarynotices, obituary poetry, unsolicited poetry, and also all noticesof suppers, socials, or sales where admission is charged or articlesare sold.Fonblanquepraised by, 106; on Brougham, 283.

Shea, Leaves from the Life of a Special Correspondent, II, 173.Efforts have been made to indicate the personality of the newspaper, and therefore to determinethe character of its influence, by tabulating the relative proportions that various selected newspapers give to different classes ofmaterial, as news, opinion, crime, advertisements, or illustrations.The subject of the editorial has broadened at the same timethat its treatment of all subjects has notably improved.Lord Panmure to Lord Raglan show was abundantlyjustified.The news letter in Scotland.Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, Lincoln, and Grant wereall commandeered, and a description was given of the invasion ofFrance by the Huns in the fifth century.But in 1831 the Press struck out a bolderline.

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Technical works on journalism.Russell in the Civil War.Sir Charles evidently questioned the feasibility ofcarrying out the idea in England, but felt that something oughtto be done to check the license of the press, as he regarded it.Many illustrations of this limitation are found.Kenyon, Lord, Memory Woodfall and,169.Vizetelly, Émile Zola, Novelist and Reformer, pp.Expansion of classes of material used by the historian.

New York Evening Post, February, 1915, May 18,1918.Partial forgerieshave not been uncommon, but they have usually been confinedto special letters issued for a special purpose.Malefuewho was cited to appeare and ſhe did nor, The Biſhop ofCollons Ambaſſadors hauc once had an exeto be preſcribed Dodor Leininger, did much compleine of dition, and havemouedtheNowitalyec there, so appoint ahim, laying that he was the cauſe that Pilica Raveover: The cercarne time when they would take order for reparatiod toBaujaro ſouldiers ſpoile all about Elcabogheo and Rordig.The weather is the cause ofmany variationsbetween the eventsand published accounts of them.General Butler merited the suspension of that paper from May 23 to July 9, 1864.

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But the censor forgot that the nameof the schoolappeared prominently on some of the hangars.Sissondocuments issued by the Committee on Public Information, but the NewYork Evening Post questioned the authoritativeness of a part of them.These characterizationsof those connected with the press as given by Bismarck and hiscontemporaries indicate the difficulties the editor had to overcome in Germany during the Imperial régime.Much of this disapproval on the part ofthe government seems wholly justified, for political, financial,and industrial questions are so interwoven with military operations that full publicity can not be accorded except under thesanction of the government and it naturally wishes to be its ownmedium of communication with the public.Letter fromPresident Henry Louis Smith, April 20, 1922.

Yet without suchknowledge he is relying on the blind for guidance.Writing from Marpurg in Hellen, that theEarleof the ſameLand, doth cauſe the foreſaidOut of Weenen, she oNovember,Ciccie to be ſtrongly forritied, there on docHe French Ainballadour hath cauſed the vvorke many 100 men dayly, and there ismu.They are in striking contrast to the lightheartedness of the advertisements in countries less immediatelyconcerned with the war where deftness of phrase may veil thereal meaning of war while using its language for commercialpurposes.Emperor William and the Daily Telegraph.New York Associated Dailies, 80.The owner or editor of a paper may maintain the beautiful and impressive bluff of running a journal to influence public opinion, to purify politics,to elevate public morals, and to reorganize the social structure in general.Bunner, Introduction to A Selection of Cartoons from Puck byJoseph Keppler.

The authorraises the question how far Napoleon profited by information containedin the British press and decides that it is improbable that news receivedmonths late could have affected his plans.Shorter they might be, but they must be poignant.If they signed their work, surely theywould find their reward elsewhere; they would have laboured forthemselves.Perkins was able to purchase space in thepress, but that farmers had no money for such purpose.Mechlenburg Declaration of Independence, forgery of, 416.The advertiser in his turn is offended by adverse criticism.New York Evening Post, October 8, 1910.

Doyou prefer to patronize the cheapest places without regard to the quality ofwhat you buy?Delane and Henry Reeve.If a fire is suspected as having had an incendiary origin, the public demands to know who caused it, yetto give the news desired and indicate the offender before anindictment had been presented would again be to print libellousmatter.When The Times sought to destroy the popularity of Orator Hunt of aformer day, it reported his speeches verbatim.The attempt has been made tocharacterize, as far as possible, the occupation in the terms used by the persons themselves.

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Guarantees afforded by press itself.Tourist and Homemaker, 48.Literary Review, May 14, 1921.This reputation for uncertainty of tenure, whetherwell or ill deserved, has long discredited their work.As longas the historian must concern himself primarily with the questionof evidence, with testing the truth of statements made, withdetermining the authoritativeness of all the material that heuses, he feels that hemust reject in large part the newspaper asa source for his work.Lord Chatham, I more than doubt.

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Huns, invasion of France by, 342.Middle West bought editorials in the country press at advertisingrates for the purpose of influencing the state legislature to make it a largerappropriation.PressofOctober 4, 1914.The early illustration did not represent women outside of thefashion magazine or ballroom and society scenes.Sinclair, Fifty Years of Newspaper Life, pp.

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Pius X, death of, 121.Tendencies of early criticism.New York Evening Post, August 18,1914.Mutual exchange of criticisms.Spelling is also affected by the headline.

The errancyof the press, if such there be, must lie elsewhere.Thursdays until December 10, 1646.Ores and Metals, 48.The headline largely regulatesthe emphasis that is given to the report of current events.Continuity is foundin the serial advertisements that are often complete and continuous; they are numbered with each appearance and indicatewhen the next advertisement in the series may be expected.Book, set of, destroyed,112.How far can he accept the contemporaryverdict of the critic as authoritative and final?

Christian Union, advertisements excluded by, 370.Richards, With John Bull and Jonathan, gives much importantinformation on this point.See also Religious press.Undoubtedly the weight attached to the opinions of the editorhas at times taken on new and greater importance by reason ofthe offices and honors conferred upon him.Jules Favre, I confess that I should have turned out allforeign journalists at the commencement of the siege.

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United States Supreme Court was given in favor of the Associated Press, December 23, 1918, 35 and a final decree in its favorentered May 19, 1919.And of public library.Indeed, the process of37 There has been much confusion in the use of the two terms since theyhave often been used synonymously, but they are essentially different.The great relief will be to cease seeing the American newspapers.The best caricature therefore does not merely reflectpublic opinion, but guides it.Anything in the paper!

Is it not about time to stoplaying all the blameon the poor voter for his lack of interest and turn ourattention toward making politics as direct and forceful and appealing as,say, a box score or the automobile advertisements?The merging of two or more papers in one, and the controlof several papers by a single owner is not a new tendencyalthough specially pronounced at the present time.This implies an injusticeagainst which even a criminal on trial is protected.It does follow that the centerof gravity changes its position as new elements are added andtive importance of the press shifts from time to time.John Morley, Life of Richard Cobden, pp.Where authority has felt its strength, it hasnot troubled to answer the advertising appeals of its opponents.

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BOWLES, Samuel17791851BOWLES, Samuel, Jr.Commons, House of, resolution of,concerning published reports of proceedings, 161.Church has opposed the Sundayedition and the comic supplement.Press supports certain conditions of healthCautious on other sides of public health.The Pressand Its Story, pp.New York Evening Post, February 17, 1908.

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Thehistorian, in his use of the newspaper in reconstructing the pastmust test the papers used for their completeness as well as fortheir authoritativeness, and must submit the great daily of alarge city to one set of tests and the weekly paper of a smallvillage to quite other tests.Frederick Boyle, the correspondent of the London Standard,was expelled from Russia because certain phrases, the truth ofwhich was not denied, were offensive to the government.Yet when all has been said in regard to the declining influenceof the editorial, it must be remembered that there is much to besaid on the other side and that it is more nearly true to say thatthe position of the editorial has changed, and that its influence isbeing felt in new and other ways.Indeed the experiment had alreadybeen made, for the speeches in parliament had for some timebeen given inthe Political State of Great Britain, a publication above spoken of, andthough drawn up by persons no way equal to such an undertaking, werewell received.Journal represents the consolidation ofthree dailies.At least one journalist has found foreign correspondents inveterate grumblers, probably because they feelthemselves exiles and can not keep in touch with affairs at home.Errors of local reporter need not disquiet historian.

The Dogma of Journalistic Inerrancyconverts a maxim of policy into a tenet of faith.For spreading truth, and making love expand.Cited in the Constitution of the Federated Press League, Article II.Tell him and his coadjutor that I belong to theBlack Hussars of Literature, who neither give nor receive criticism.It was urged in favor of thisproposed measure that the press needed to be protected againstitself and protected against a liberty that in the nature of thingsit could not help abusing, while it also needed to be relieved ofresponsibility.Welfare work among its own employees.

The suppression of much news is oftena genuine advantage to the historian since its publication can addnothing of importance to a study of the period or of the community.The Preface of The History of the Works of the Learned: or, An ImpartialAccount of Books Lately Printed in all parts of Europe.The volumes were issued until 1635 and theyresemble more an annual register than a daily or weekly periodical.Biglow Papers, 381; contributed first topress, 106.American writers have apparently been less interested in the subject.It is, however, sometimes difficult to enforce the law.

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International misunderstanding due to war.They wantto break off allkind of connection between me and the Edinburgh Review.English its leading representatives.Insurance companies pay what they promise.Twelve Thousand Persons Hear HimSpeak.MonfiereLadugnie o is not permitted in goc from cheCourt, it may be.

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Should authors read criticism.Booklist will duly recommend it, showing that however stern anduncompromising they would have the professional literary critic, when itcomes down to their own case librarians prefer the milk of human kindnessto the corrosive acid of outspoken criticism.Alfred Baker, The Life of Sir Isaac Pitmon.The play is first of all a work ofliterature and it is naturally reviewed as such.The plan would stimulate competition in excellence among the variousstaffs of great dailies, and the commission attached to manoeuvre headquarters would be regarded as a signal honor.Straight through the mighty Libyan folks is Rumour on the wingRumour, of whom nought swifter is of any evil thing:She gathereth strength by going on, and bloometh shifting oft!

That in writing upon the subject of our NewspapersI have avoided everything which might appear like the opinion of a party,is to be accounted for from the knowledge I have gained from them; since,the more of these instructors a man reads, the less he will infallibly understand: nor would it have been very consistent in me, at the same time tocensure their temerity and ignorance, and to adopt their rage.They would not standthis new test for a moment.Sir, I have often been contemplating with a particular Satisfaction, the eminent Station we Journal Writers, and the Printers of Journals stand in, and what high Characters we bear in the World.The Catholics did not support Lord Acton,and the Church of England did not support Frederick DenisonMaurice.Some of these troubles come from within.Considered collectively it must be obvious that the illustration has many limitations as historical material.Napoleon himself would have been defeated with a free press.

The editor who travels abroad apparently leaves his professional interests behind and writes of European scenery, art galleries, and politics, but seldom of the newspaper press of other countries.Criticism as a Trade.Cumberland on, 315; Scott on, 315316; Howells on, 316; Matthews on,316; favored by Traill, 317.Much as the European presshas ridiculed or condemned the interview, apparently because ofits reputed American origin, it has adopted it, but in doing so ithas varied somewhat its general characteristics.If theadvertiser has unduly influenced the press to suppress news unfavorable to special business interests, it has been the press itselfthat has set the danger signal.Robinson is credited with inaugurating telegraph service for theletters as well as for the despatches of war correspondents as far back as1870.Governor Fitz John Winthropby John Campbell, from Boston, dated variously from April to October,1703.

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Glances Back Through Seventy Years, I, 232.Chapel Bill, June 6, 1844, as given in Hansard and in his collected workspublished in 1866, shows not only much elaboration of phraseology, butgenuine emendations.Melton Prior tells of the surprise expressed by Gen.Nothing is worth my saying that I cannot help myself out withbetter, I hold, than even the most suggestive young gentlemanwith a notebook can help me.Englishcommanding general in the Crimea to the criticismsof The Timescorrespondent and his hostility to the press in general may, atleast in part, be explained by his having served on the staff ofthe Duke ofWellington and having married his niece.Modifications in the nameof a single prison journalmay be significant of changes in the policy of control.Long as is the list of foreign language newspapers in a country, the individual papers have as a rule an uncertain tenure of life; their very success often the more quickly hastens their dissolution.

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Result on papers publishing it.But such an honest chronicler.Atits worst, it is a mouthpiece for the prejudices or the projects ofwhoever runs it.French and in Spanish as well as a third for the British Islands.This led him to talk over with a number of staff officers a plan for improvingthe situation.Every trifling event is chronicled and its importance magnified, yet while its exaggerations are prone to beexcessive, they are easily detected and discounted.Thethick and thin supporters of party issues often openly seek andare awarded printing contracts and political advertising.

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The artist sketched the scene and introduced inconspicuously in a corner the figures of the Prince of Wales and Prince George ofDenmark.Sun, 293;newspapers collected by, 452.See Supplement, illustrated.The theater, he writes, suffers from the lack of patronage by persons of intelligence and taste.Interest of press in education.When the4 The Freeholder, No.

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YatesCountyChronicle, advertisingrates of, 81.Has the public a right to knowRight to selection general.This is not a new criticism.Gordon, General, at Khartoum, 392393.It seems to me quite right that periodicalsshould admit signed articles, and I now prefer myself to write under my ownname; but whenI remember all the rubbish which I have read with aneminent signature attached to it, probably commanding a fancy price andan immense audience, I realize how much is gained by compelling thepublic to read the comments of the Daily Press with a more or less openmind.Wilson, Secretary, plan of, 87.

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Its real limitation is of an entirely different character.After the ceremony, the Prince of Wales and the artistspent two days in Moscow where they witnessed as spectators a dance ofRussian gypsies.Maxwell, Rainy Days in a Library, pp.Other abnormal features due to exceptional circumstancesare manifestly excluded in any discussion of the external appearance ofa paper as conditioning its authoritativeness.The result of the review wasthat the textbook was withdrawn by the publishers, and therefore the review was not published.

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But this connectionhas not escaped criticism.It must also be evident that these innumerable errors of statement are in themselves often of trifling importance, that for themoment some of them may add to the gaiety of the nations,although others are, to the last degree, irritating and annoyingto those concerned.Archer, William, on dramatic criticism,323; court proposed by, 324.The Times of Delane analmost pontifical influence.Itseemed to him that the Italians were more desirous of suppressing than ofaiding the efforts of the few who attempted to remedy the defect of lackof all intelligence from the camp.The banquet was prolonged andboisterous.

See also Freedom of the press; Regulation of the press.The personal attack may be against Gladstone or Disraeli,Asquith or Lloyd George, Roosevelt or Bryan, free trade or protective tariff, prohibition or equal suffrage, but whatever the object of the attack the temptation, not always resisted, has beento deal in personalities that infallibly record the bad mannersof the attacking newspaper.The article was the annual address before theBritish Historical Association, January 8, 1915.See alsoEngland; Ireland, Scotland.Enrico Caruso, Caricatures.Parts of newspaper mutually contradictory.Many erroneous statements are attributable to ignorance andhence they are easily exposed and rejected.

This Fronlichnam feart, washoldea by the Catholickes in cam: becher aod was according to themaner lately received,the preſence of the Prince of Licchceníteon and others.English political and social conditions were to belessened or removed by the new review.When the history of our own age comes to be written the pictorialnewspapers will form an inexhaustible storehouse for the historian.Harper, editorof Chicago Commerce.Sincethat time historians have come to accept the latent serviceableness of the newspaper to the fraternity.The food manufacturers poison us.An eminent journalist once said that the ideal reporter was one whoknew something important was going to happen and was on hand to report it.

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It is assuredly a far cryfrom that enjoyable library scene to a later day when the Londonpress was reported to be irritated because American rather thanEnglish papers carried an interview with the King of Belgiumthat the Associated Press had obtained in December, 1914.NewYork Times, May 2,1922.The Morning Post must besupplied with the latest information and must employ the bestcorrespondents, there could be no appreciable increase in thedaily demand: the profit would be made by such of the eveningpapers as had no correspondents on the spot, and could rely on abrisk sale in the streets.Boardman whodenied it in the papers of December 27, 1915; the Danish press of January,1916, published an interview purporting to come from Henry Ford whichwas immediately denied.Different tests for authoritativeness for different classes.Warsaw announced a few days before.

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Medill, Joseph, tariff editorials, 21.Carlyle will not do, that is, if youdo not take the liberties and the pains with him that I did, bystriking out freely, and writing in occasionally.In time of war, it is prone to measure allcitizens by its own standard of patriotism and to pronounceanathemason allwho do not conform to these particular standards.Nothing can now bebelieved which is seen in a newspaper.New York dailies, August 28, 1915.The historian in his use of criticism as found in theperiodical press must seek the explanation of this distrust; hemust attempt to ascertain how far this distrust is well foundedbefore he is justified in using criticism in his efforts to reconstructthe past.

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Hunt, Then and Now, chap.New York City papers one day contained an elaborate detailed account of the marriage of a wealthy young man in aneighboring city.It is not his business to break things on thewheel; but to introduce the book before him to its proper audience; always recognizing, of course, sometimes with pleasantsubtle irony, its limitations.New York paper which announced the publication of another opposition paper which would take quite a different line in politics, and said, that the editor of the new organ was a man of so great ability, that it, the old established paper, could not doubt of the success it wished him.This can not inany way be classed as war correspondence, but it has had aprominent place in the press.

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Jones whose intentions seem the best.Newcomer have contributed copies of inscriptions in London in memory of British war correspondents.The illustration and interpretation.The illustration is given in the Illustrated London News, December25, 1869.The quarterly, the monthly, and the weekly were the acceptedmediums for the review and it was apparently long before itfound a permanent place in the daily press.American Ambulance hospital of Paris,violator of, 121.

Ignorance and envy are the only possible parents of such criticisms as disgracethe publication which assumes the name of your city.He travels abroad and describes theunusual scenes, customs, and habits of countries little known to1 Letters of Junius, edited by John Wade, II, iii.Franceand England, 71.Thismight seem to guarantee the authoritativeness of the interview,but the prepared interview is often only a cloak used to hide theabsence of ideas or thought on the part of the person giving it.George Chalmers on behalf of The EnglishMercurie, dated 1588.

See Answers to Correspondents.The reasonsfor this are easily understandable.Periodical, as historical material, 38;technical, 463.It oftenprints facts concerning its own history, such as the year when itwas established, its press ancestors, consolidations, and consequent change of name, and this pride in ancestry or of a longand honorable journalistic career has a tonic effect.Under date of May 23, 1864, Manton Marble wrote President Lincolnexplaining that the proclamation arrived late at night; that in the morningwhen the facts were known every effort was made to retrieve the error;declared that the explanation exculpated the World and that the suppressionof the World and the Journal of Commerce was arbitrary, illegal, and unconstitutional; and made a strong defense of the constitutional right of freedomof the press.Caruso,Royal Blind Asylum and School, 339.Lloyd, Edward, Catling and, 281.

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Illustration a complementary medium of expressionVariety of illustration.It was to be expected that the fastidious Delane would makeeditorial emendations.Next of kin to the prepared interview is the inspired interview.With the passing of personal journalism and the merging of the individual journalist into the composite board, it becomes still more difficult to individualize the editor.President Lincoln in May, 1864.Zigenheym,againſt chele Lands.

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Literary Supplement of the London Times, March 4, 1920.Tillthen newspapers had never thought of discussing the principlesofGovernment in their broadest sense.The relative importance of the editorial has undergone achange.The newspaper hasadapted itself to meet this expansion of interests.The agile advertisement everywhere is in the van in anticipating new demands, in creating new interests, in realizing newconditions, and in being prepared to meet them.

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Not less significant are the changes in social conditions recorded in the announcements of births, engagements, annulmentof engagements, marriages, and deaths.Extraordinary conditions necessarily change proportions.Histories of the press are comparatively few.Many errorserrors Wimportantunimportant.The functions of special correspondence have come to be evenmore various than have been its origins.Difficulty of delimiting functions of criticism.

United States,three to five sheets to each paper.But it is noteworthy that the New England newspapersvery early recorded the regional interest in shipping since specificforms of ships were indicated in connection with the sailing listsprinted.In all lawsuits attempting to exclude dramatic critics fromtheaters, the real object of theater managers is obviously toattempt to control newspaper opinion and to that extent it isa menace to the freedom of the press; wherever freedom of thepress prevails, the answer to such judicial decisions is inevitablythe introduction of legislative measures intended to strengthenthe law on the side of freedom of expression and thus makeimpossible similar decisions in the future.Time after time I was refused as a tenant, even when payment of rent in advance was offered.This opinion expressedwith reference to the position of a prominent religious periodicalindicates with exceptional clearness some of the limitations thehistorian must find in his use of the religious press.During the recent war these national characteristics werespecially pronounced.

But a far more important group of causes has been put forthand has been vigorously upheld.But quite as unconsciouslythe newspaper is written for the masses and it appeals to themthrough cartoons, through choice of subject for interviews, reports, special letters, and discussion of questions uppermost in thepublic mind.In the early period, he waited for the issueof the battle and then wrote his account of what he had himselfwitnessed.Blackwell beganin 1870 and was devoted especially to securing suffrage for women.Everything that relates to an individualin unusual circumstances is news, and a tale about such an individual is important whether it concerns one person or another.The historian must recognize andunderstand the personality of every periodical he uses, for onlythrough this understanding can he appreciate the value and thelimitations of the newspaper as historical material.

American paper, this and other monstrousstatements, which I could at any time have converted intosickening praise by the payment of some fifty dollars.The advertiser is sometimes a brother of the reporter in carelessness.Dutch cartoonsshow a hatred of oppression, while the French disposition hasbeen indicated by calm endurance.Yet the working plans may be of valueand interest to other architects, and a knowledge of the principles used in developing these working plans is absolutely essential to those beginning the study of architecture.Personal column, it; name of sendermust accompany communications for,79; in time of war, 481, 482, 483.Lord Acton as editor.

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But to a large extent everyindividual question must be decided on its own merits and itmust be decided by every individual historian who uses the newspaper as historicalmaterial.Deliberate errors of reporters.The result in print, even when the interviewerhas been most conscientious and has had the memory of a Macaulay, can scarcely, for the purposes of the historian, be considered an exact reproduction either of the language or of theopinions of the person interviewed.Perkins at once offered to pay for an advertisement in everymorning and afternoon paper in the State giving the reasonsagainst his own confirmation by the Senate that had beenadvanced by the representative of the agricultural societies.Advertisements to influence collective action.

Reform Bill, 7, 64; press as independentpolitical power dates from, 34.Edward Dicey on the English press.Enquirer fell under the influence of party patronage.The wheel turns round and Moberly Bell is cited as saying, only twenty years ago, that it was an unheard of thing for a member of the editorial staff of The Times to be seen talking with any member of the commercial department.It did not strive nor cry.

Emergency Peace Federation, 346.Greeley in November, 1872.Somewhat similar reasonshave been given for the absence of a radical press in America.But they may be considered subsidiary forms of illustration and they are therefore ofless importance to the historian than are the four great classes ofillustrations that may be grouped by themethod of making themand the use to which they are put.Matthew Arnold, Letters,I, 338.Other errors are to be charged to the plain carelessness of reporters.In England, gifts have been made to newspaper owners andeditors of peerages and of other lower orders of nobility.

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The Times for not restraining Delane towhom he accorded more blame than to Russell.James, Influence of the Press, pp.The illustration, like the press as a whole, has its own distinguishing national traits.House of Representatives was first organized there was onecongressman for every 30, 000 people.The politician and the interview.Rebels at needless entanglements.

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Hume, Joseph, on governmental advertisements, 87.Uncertain theories of dramatic criticism.Exigencies of publication must be the explanation of anotherlarge class of errors.These havebeen reproduced from the Westminster Gazette and are an excellent record ofthe political questions of the day, of governmentalaction on them, and of theeffect of this on the voters.The Athenian Gazette, a publication thatoriginated in the fertile brain of the versatile John Dunton.The historian in hisuse of the press must therefore recognize the differences in thepress that have resulted from its own evolution.Bloomer in The Life and Writings of Amelia Bloomer gives a fullaccount of the work of Mrs.

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French press still remains.The result is that acolumn is often spun from a very slender basis of fact and it mayin the future be difficult to disentangle the basis of fact from theattenuated description.The various liberty and victory loans were entirely differentand had a definite educative value.One farther change in the newspaper may be considered bothan internal and an external change.Don Cevallos on the Usurpation ofSpain.Advertisement, January 19, 1918.It is impossible in the case of anewspaper to conceal evidence of guilt for any length of time andultimate disclosure is always sure.

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If a person is socially or politically ambitious,the interview may be a ladder by which the ambition is realized,and on the other hand, local pride is gratified when citizens distinguished at home are made to seem equally distinguishedabroad.Frederick Maurice, The Life of Frederick Denison Maurice, I, chap.LibertyBonds should be advertised to make those who are unaccustomedto bond investments know what a bond is.Success of collective advertising.These judgmentsseem justified when it is remembered how many men of lettershave gone into journalism and have carried with them the highstandards of writing that in many cases still prevail, how manyjournalists have developed into littérateurs, how many havemadepermanent contributions to both fields of writing.Yser, accounts of battle of the, 488.

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The feathers, under each there lurks, O strange!Many expressions, and a few paragraphs lingerin my memory.Suggestions that are buried inthe body of thearticles may attract no attention, but the flaming headlinetakes the eye at once, and its diagnosis of the matter which itcriticises may be very wide of the mark without the averagereader applying any correction.England, is infinitely moreobscene, disgusting, and brutal, than the very worst Sundaynewspaper that has ever been printed in Great Britain.If the subscription listsof thecountry papers drop off through the competition of the press ofthe neighboring city, their advertising columns, carrying nationalas well as local advertising, strengthen their business credit.

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Attitude of the press towards illustration.Baron Grant was aConservative in politics, he made no attempt to alter the Radicalprinciples of The Echo.Spedding, James, his criticismMacaulay, 299.Marriage ceremonies are described as having taken place in a church,while sudden illness has made necessary a change in plans andthe ceremony has been performed in private.Weekly and published by it in its issue of July 11, 1914, and in aletter, under date of August 1, 1914, to the Atlantic Monthly, but apparentlynot published by it.

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The speech as given in Hansard does not give the statement concerningNapoleon III.Williams, The Press Congress of the World, University of Missouri,Bulletin X, January, 1918.Plan of censorship by press itself.The first class is connected with the internal conduct of thepress.New York Evening Post, August 29, 1914.Even in small ways the differences are marked.

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The press here, as in similar cases, seems entitled tothe benefit of the doubt.Houses, which I had themost free use of.Circulation is sometimes knowingly given to false statements,as when detectives send word through the press that search forcriminals has been abandoned and thus are enabled to securethem by putting them off their guard.Much of this was enthusiastically received at a time when comparatively few persons went abroad, 34 but it was necessarilysuperficial and lacking in perspective.Williams, History of English Journalism to the Foundation of the Gazette,chap.

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In the fields ofmusic and art, the drama and literature, sports and athletics,markets and finance, the work of reporting and of criticism isdone on the large dailies by persons who have the technicalknowledge demanded by these subjects.American Public Health Association in 1915.Historian must consider these transformations.The country paper, speaking generally,stands at the foot of credit ratings.French cuirassiers and Italian brigands, posing as Mexican soldiers andcivilians, were mingled with the others.

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See Pulitzer School ofJournalism.Biglow Papers, Number VI.In England the repeal of the stamp dutiesled to a reduction in the price of newspapers and an enormousincrease in the demand for them.The indictment was filed December 2, 1913, and the case dismissedDecember 1, 1915.I9II91The free lance correspondent.

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This service was for some time rendered by the Association of AmericanAdvertisers.Boer war, various editors and others threw up theirposts rather than write contrary to their convictions.In reading the war correspondence of the golden age of thewar correspondent, in reading his own accounts of his experiencesand his biographies that friends have written, and in comparingthis material with the corresponding material of the present day,it seems clear that the historian finds its value affected by thepersonal equation of the correspondent, but still more that itsauthoritativeness must in large part be judged by the period inwhich he worked.Their limitations for the historian.New York Americanwere thus edited, in spite of the contract that no captions or drawings shouldbe changed.Lord Wolseley and the correspondents.To the advertisement hasbeen given the credit of so influencing public opinion in Germanyas to bring about national unity.

Delane was a frequent guest, did not escape the eagle eyeand caustic pen of John Bright.German propaganda through American newspapersand early in 1917 it acquired a control of the Wolff Bureau.The Department of State in Washington issued passports only to thosewriters regularly accredited to responsible journals or to press associationsand to those whose neutral character was assured.He is proud of the long list of distinguishedmen who have been war correspondents and he rejoices that heis one of the guild.He must still look for that larger criticism that in the opinionof Carl Becker has to do with the entire intellectual activity ofthe time and is therefore concerned with books only as theyaptly illustrate some aspect of this larger subject.

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Imake it a rule neverto believe any of your printed news.Important contemporaneous material is found in De Bachaumont,Mémoires, 18 vols.MacCracken on dramatic criticism.Press to support it.The countryweekly gives both relatively and sometimes absolutely a largerproportion of its space to purely social events than does the dailyof the large city.

Humour anddiffuse Kind of Narration, which embellish the Compositionsof our modern Diurnal Historians.Theory of Matthew Arnold.State laws affording guarantees.The press itself has never been backward in expressing itsstrictures on others.Errors of a deliberate nature are sometimes made through adesire to connect an unimportant or local incident with someoccurrence of national interest or with some person of nationalfame.Lewis, On the Influence ofAuthority in Matters of Opinion, pp.

Bryanand of Mr.Effect of a serious fire on advertisements.Scott finds a partial explanation in the apparent effort to writewith children in mind.Nofurther information as to its fate has been available.Caricature of the eighteenth centurywas spasmodic and was given publicity through print shops.

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He thus makes cleardescriptions otherwise necessarily obscure, and material thatwas once reserved for books becomes a part of the daily newspaper.But it is still more explained by theunnecessary duplication of reporting maintained by many newspapers and the obvious advantage of division of labor and reduction of expense.They might not alwaysprovide news but they could provide sensation.The cartoon or the photograph may fill a large part of the frontpage when there is a dearth of telegraphic news.Thecritical faculty itself is held in abeyance and the pressmay acceptas authoritative, documents that, under normal conditions,would not bear close scrutiny, 34 and publish reports whose accuracy has not been investigated.

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Thecountry postoffice, the corner grocery, the church sewing circle,and the fashionable city club have each in its turn served as amedium for exchange of news as well as for the discussion of newideas.STUDENTS of history may be reasonably sure that they mayaccept at their face value the statements of the press that carrywith them the evident guarantee of accuracy and truthfulness.Answers to Correspondents, first Harmsworth paper, 60.Take a personalinterest in every telephone call you handle.Union, The, motto of, 43.

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The tendencies of the press differ at different times in different countriesand to such an extent that it is impossible to make any statement concerning the press that is true at all times, or of allcountries, or of any country at any one time.Coq; Théophraste Renaudot et ses innocentes inventions; A propos de Théophraste Renaudot.Miseries of war disclosed by advertisements.Cartoons Magazine on, 408.Kossuth, however, was not to be thwarted and he quicklycollected a group of young men who, as secretaries, wrote outlarge numbers of the journal which circulated in manuscriptthroughout Hungary.

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In theearly days of the Athenaeum, the editor, James Silk Buckingham,had issued a warning against the prevailing custom of seekingfavorable reviews, 70 but the editorship quickly passed into thehands of Frederick Denison Maurice who apparently had littlesympathy with either reviews or reviewers.The French nature, he finds rather observant than deductive,Princess of Wales.The weather chart was started in 1848 by the Daily News.Van Beverunder the title Mémoires secrets de Bachaumont, 2 vols.The leading Catholic Review,he felt, occupied too narrow a ground, since when new ideas andnew wants arose it could not meet them and instead of leading,it fell behind and soon looked with increasing jealousy upon allwho did not accept the same limitations.The advertisers of pearls explainthe pearl fisheries in Oriental seas and the steps that intervenebetween the shell as it comes from the hand of the diver and thepearls as they reach Fifth Avenue.It was published in 1895 and is a masterlyaccount of the difficulties of an early war correspondent as described behindthe scenes.

Number proposed three hundred thousand.It made my hair standon end, and I have had to alter it almost beyond recognition.All of the conditionsaffecting the press have produced an infinitely complex resultthat have made the work of the historian in dealing with it ashistorical material one of enormous difficulty.Chevalier Carton de Wiart.Russian Orange Book, No.The interview must also be questioned by reason of its source.Many writers, too, are pleased to seetheir names in print.

Moreover, newspapers often expresslydisclaim all responsibility for the accuracy or authenticity ofcurb market quotations.The Panmure Papers, 2 vols.The old rule of the English press that the leader must containthree and only three paragraphs and each paragraph elaborate asingle idea applies to journalism a procrustean measure thatwould be fatal to literature.Couper, The Edinburgh Periodical Press, I, 115.Thomas Ritchie,Answers to correspondents, II, 59.The result of creeling is something less than a whopper.

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They were translated into Englishand both originals and translations published in London, the second edition, in 1737.He told me that he had alreadybeen to the newspaper to protest against its appearance, asevery statement in it was destitute of foundation.The opinions of certain publishers have already been indicated.Shakespeare, 325; newspaper mottotaken from, 44; quoted, 249.See also Special correspondent; War correspondence.

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Head may resemble the present Sultanof Constantinople!Editor Being the Life, Letters, andDiaries of Shirley Brooks, pp.The motto setting forth the ideals of a newspaper shades imperceptibly into the statement giving the basis of its appeal toreaders or advertisers.The tests that the historian applies to the advertisement to determine its accuracy are simple, and moreover it is usually unto the reliability of the advertisements it publishes.Let the most gifted intellect, capable of writing epics, try to write such a Leader for the Morning Newspapers!Every newspaper is as truly published for a definite constituencyas is a technical trade journal75 and an endowed newspaper, it mayreasonably be assumed, would quickly take on protective coloring.Grub Street, 254, 256, 267.

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Men working on the paper were forbidden to know each other.The easiest way to kill the true spirit of a religious journal is tomake it the mere bulletin of the denominational organizations.The correspondent is to take no side, andto express no opinions of his own.XII, givesan important account of the paper criers.These corantos in the Burney collection have been held to be the earliestEnglish newspapers known.Child, Theodore, on news in France durmentary reports circulated by, 160ing Second Empire, 187; on alteringMSS.Many illustrations of this are given by Mason Jackson, The PictorialPress Its Origin and Progress, London, 1885.

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The departmentstore advertiser continues to assert his right to dominatethe news columns, and it is only a brave and powerful newspaper like theNew York World which can answer the demand of an advertiser that amurder or an accident in his store be omitted from its columns by printingit on its first page with most conspicuous headlines.But the WarOffice not only finds their presence a serious inconvenience butit finds them positively harmful.Daily press of August, 1912.Registration in the federal post office as second class mattercarries with it the privileges of the mails and therefore this becomes a guarantee that the periodical containsno advertisementsof lotteries or other forms of business prohibited in any state.See also Audit bureau ofcirculations; Newspaper as a businessenterprise.Democratic or Republican.

How do these advertisements fail to reproduce the life of thetime?The love of sensation explains many misstatements.Early journalism of women.The wars of the religious press in America have been no lessvigorous, and orthodoxy and heterodoxy have from the beginning had their pronounced champions.The relation of the leading article of the London Times tothe news of the day is scarcely an extreme illustration of thechange in importance that has taken place in the editorial.The authorgives a full account of the difficulties of Edward Cave in securing thereports.

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Others make the announcement thatthey are inaugurating a system of group life insurance for allconnected with the company both on the selling and on themanufacturing sides.The London Daily Herald reproduced in reduced facsimile a part of oneof these forged newspapers.The Greek agora gave similar opportunity and St.Oases in the desert.The natural sequence of this extraordinary development ofadvertising has been the introduction of educational courses toteach how to write advertisements, 76 the development of theof patent medicines, as a result of the campaign for honest advertising, therewould seem to be no objection to the expansion of the card now permittedso as to include facts that the public reasonably wishes to know, as officehours, and Sunday hours.New York Times, November 16, 1914.And I have hope to erect a Staple for News ere long, whither allshall be brought and thence again vented under the name Staplenews.

It is a practice which must be completely stopped.Yet for the historian who seeks to use criticism as one meansof reconstructing the past the book review is but the initial step.As the limit of timeapproached, the advertisements increased, till, on one November day, thepaper was enlarged to 583 pages!Historical Manuscripts Commission,Twelfth Report, Preface, and Appendix, Part VII.This is, in my opinion, the supreme advantage of anonymous journalism.BizWomenResources and information for womenin business.

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In America, since the close of the war, there has been an evident tendency on the part of some newspapers to minimize theimportance of the question of unemployment.With the enlargement of the sphere of the press, and with the development of thetheory that the public has a right to know what is said by itspolitical representatives, the parliamentary reporter made hissurreptitious entrance.Grergocochat, that the Tuckes and Tartariang ſhould deſtroy this Van Landam thall be broughr priſoners hether.As far as the contention ofthe Associated Press has been concerned, not a single case ofalleged wilful suppression of the news has been proved.It announces that advertisements submitted for insertion in its automobile exchange are subject to censorship and that information is welcomedfrom readers of doubtful or misleading announcements; that satisfactorybank and business references are required before the acceptance of anyadvertisement for insertion in its Business Opportunities columns.Johnson Club Papers, pp.After the supplies had beengiven out, the crowd was asked if they wanted a further distribution of food,and, if so, to indicate their desire by raising their hands.

Walter that he should go to Altona and become The Times correspondent.American generals and French andother foreign cuts, appropriated to do duty as delineations ofMexican life.The Judge in other countries, a universal justice,to redress all errors, to chastise bad faith, to make public opinionmore wholesomeand sane, and by the high and impartial severityof its judgments, it would force those who enjoy the terrible andresponsible honour of holding the pen, to remember their duty aswell as their interest, and to bow before an enlightened publicopinion, at last protected against the poison which was formerlypoured out for it.The illustrations of the recent war have been invaluable forthe historian, less on account of their representations of whatmen and women have been doing, as for their interpretation ofwhat they have been thinking and feeling.One of Cealen, sie 24of November.This plan has not as yet received the unqualified support of the press itself, but from thepoint of view of the student of history it has much to commendit.The change in the choice of literary subjects inthe newspaper press has since then been rapid and it has recorded the changing interests of society.

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For this confusion the press itself is not altogether to be blamed.And news of the faction.The object of writing this book has been to discover if possible the advantages and the limitations of the periodical press, especially the newspaper, considered as historical material, and thus to determine the extent of its usefulness to the historian in his efforts to reconstruct the past.The newspaper, like the individual, has its own sense of humorthat changes from generation to generation and that undergoes asea change in passing from one country to another.This is specially true when news dispatches give acomplexion to a subject not warranted by the real facts of thecase.Ben Jonson, Newsfrom the New World discovered in the Moon,1621.

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Probably the first issue of the first distinctly religious newspaper wasthat of the Herald of Gospel Liberty, September 1, 1808.The Duke had never held the newspaper press in much respect.If the content of the newspaper is to be subordinated to the business management concerned only in efficiency for the sake of larger circulation, more advertising, and45 The ability to control the supply of print paper through the controlof pulp mills has been an element of power in the hands of certain representatives of the press.In great metropolitan centers, however, it is the clientele that constantly changes, while the same newspapers continue.The question, as has beenseen, is a persistent one and no question connected with the presshas been answered with more sweeping generalizations than this.Berlin and other large cities is written with theminuteness and the familiarity of style of a village chronicle,and gives the impression that every one is occupied in observingthe doings of his neighbor.

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Francis McCullagh, New York Evening Post, January 11, 1913.So often has the statement been iterated and reiterated that it has come to have somewhat the authority of anaxiom.The matter thus obtained is put in type; then stereotyped three, four, orfive times; and then the blocks are sent by afternoon train toPlymouth, Hull, and other places in which the firm have papers oftheir own, or an arrangement for supplying the papers of otherswith stereotyped matter.Taxes, English press and, 33.Leach, Fleet Street from Within, chap.The proprietors beg to say that they will be happy to receive sketchesor photographic pictures of striking scenes, important events, and leadingmen from artists in every part of the world and to pay liberally for suchas they may use.Trade journals consolidate andpromote business interests.

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Fabricated newspapers, forged newspapers, reprints of newspapers for unknown or for evident reasons have not given the historian serious concern, however much they may have deceived the uncritical.Henry Crabb Robinson, Diary, I, 189.Others, like Harriet Martineau, have beenscandalized by the tricks of the trade.Arkansas, Georgia, and other states have arranged railway trains,organized land exhibits, and in other ways sought to influence immigrationto these states.Lotteries, advertisements of, 77, 86;church, pass unnoticed by press, 93.The interviewer may, indeed, have his own troubles that handicap his report.

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Personal journalismThe yellow pressChanges in relative importance of various parts of press.Congdon says that when Rachel began her season in Boston, hewrote for his paper all the articles on her acting without knowing a word ofFrench.This also isincredible.The oracle loses half its force by losingits mystery.Chesterton, Magic, Act II.

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The charge is often made that the newspaper does not give thenews and that it suppresses the news, yet the news desired by thepublic is often what the press is legally prevented from giving.Le Clerc gives the text of the journals, after Pighius and Dodwell, and aFrench translation, following it with an analysis proving them forgeries,from internal and other evidence.No more troublesome questions were argued by theembattled advertisers than those of expenditure and of saving.School superintendents and teachers are anxious to maintaindiscipline in the schoolroom, but the parents of undisciplinedchildren insist on the sacred rights of parenthood and protest.No razorcuts the face or leaves it sore.

At half past nine the choir descended to the library bower.JohnSmith, George, sent on Assyrian exSherman, quoted, 203; his march tosea, instigated by Southern press,pedition, 13.In the case of Delane many of his intelligent contemporaries did not accept his judgment in regard to theCivil War.Italian newspapers,which being provided with Italian text, can be printed as they are, and,according to the intention of the German enlighteners, should serve to givethe Italian reader an appropriate and sympathetic picture of our army andour method of warfare.Thomas Watts conclusively showed, by exhaustive proofs, that the newspaper wasnot genuine.Yet other grounds besides the financial ones explain the dissatisfaction with the review on the part of these various groups.It ispossible that the report may have been colored by a prejudiceagainst equal suffrage; it is also probable that it may be explainedby ignorance of the character of the Swedish Parliament, byinterference with cablegrams in time of war, by failure to realizethe interest in the question here, or by other less obvious explanations.

The price of a newspaper, even with a largesubscription list, yields inadequate returns, and if the revenuesderived from the advertising are small, other sources of incomemust be found.The historian thus shares with the general public theknowledge of the ownership of allnewspapers and of the influencesthat may exert a control over editors and journalists.Press campaigns for honest advertising.The interviewerthus becomes committed, perhaps unconsciously, to the type ofinterview characteristic of his own country and he defends itwith a vigor equalled only by that with which he condemns theformsused in other countries.American newspaper half a century ago.

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Characteristics of early nineteenth century criticism.Campaigns for honest advertising do much to raise the ethical standards of the press, butthey do not necessarily improve the intellectual standards ofnewspaper readers.Daily press, June 13, 1919.Yet this friendly relationship between the press and the Churchmay constitute a serious obstacle in the path of the historian.Ware, Political Opinion in Massachusetts during CivilWar andReconstruction, passim.If the somewhat recent establishment of the office of business manager has seemed to result in thesubordination of the press to its business interests, it must notbe forgotten that the business manager has often brought orderout of previous financial chaos.

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Editors and the Pall Mall Gazette.But the very multiplicity of authoritative sources of information becomes in itself a handicap.When criticism is read later, especially since the criticoften omits explanation of what is well understood at the time,it may seem altogether lacking in the essentials of criticism, butwhen read in its original setting it becomes replete with meaning.George Borrow when viewing an insurrection in Madrid from behind a bolted door in company with the correspondent of theMorning Chronicle.Fifteen thousand cheering, militantcitizens.Above all, he must love his work betterthan his comfort, his club, his home, or his friends.

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If the causes for such elements of unauthoritativeness as are now found in the press can be fairly welllocated, it seems reasonable to believe that they may be removedby applying a remedy to suit the case.Many illustrations have been given of the sinking of unnamed ships, evidently with the intention of cheering the public at home.The general baking companies advertised that the continued high priceof raw materials together with the increased cost of almost every item ofexpense connected with the manufacture of bread compelled them to readjust the prices of their products.Eastman, Max, on editor versus artists,404.Yet the very publicity given such cases is anindication that they are exceptional.

Princeton University, journalism at, 50.The specific question of the admissionof wood pulp free of duty, a matter of vital interest to the newspaper on its business side, had the support of the press in 1908and this must have vitiated the authority of press opinions onthe tariff at that time.This is in a measure counterbalanced by thelavish use made by the press of the telegraph, the cable, and thewireless and the importance unconsciously attached to all messages received by these means, but this only in part brings fromthe historian a hesitating recognition of the value of the newspaper for his work.The professor of journalism who periodically tells us all aboutnewspapers, has failed to notice a comparatively modern and avery important feature of the newspaper, namely, the headlines.What then are the limitations of the illustration in all itsforms, in so far as it is available for the use of the historian?Taft in 1908, but theforgery was quickly detected and the punishment of the forgerswiftly followed.

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This must explain, although not excuse, the flauntinglybad taste of the headline, and it indicates that the headline, likeevery other part of the newspaper, has its own history.From Aristotle to the present day there has been139 Edmund Yates while dramatic critic for the Daily News once utterlycondemned a play of his own.He found, in his turn,that Mr.He had thought the play very good in manuscript, but when he saw it on the boards, he changed his mind and felt boundto condemn it.No daily paper ofgeneral scope could survive a month if its news concerned onlya limited element in society.

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Listed Here are some of the best siteswe foundfor Women on the Internet.In all advertising the historian finds a record of conditionswhich the press as a whole has not made, which the advertiserhas not made, but which unerringly give evidence of fundamentalconditions of society.Wider range of subjects.But the interest of the student of history in advertising alsoextends far beyond theusesmadeofit by commerce, philanthropy,government, and all the varied activities of modern life, and farbeyond the questions involved in honest advertising.All of these business methods of the most reputable papersindicate a desire to give prompt and efficient service and thuspoint to a personality that commands the respect of other members of the business community.The proof rests on the correspondence between PhilipYorke andThomas Birch between 1740 and 1745.

Lord Salisbury in 1885 and continued by his successors.Is the History ofNewgate the only one worth reading?General limitations of criticism for use of historian.To prepare such letters becameAn important and interesting account of the gazettes à la main is givenby Hatin in Les Gazettes de Hollande et la presse clandestine aux XVIIe etXVIIIe siècles.Eventhroughthese liberal and honourable publishers Messrs.Applebee, Defoe and, 263.Affiches just then and afterwards, played as large a part in the lifeof Brussels as had newspapers before the war.

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The collective interview thus becomes a safeguard against misinterpretation and elaboration, since both the person interviewedand the interviewers become mutual checks on wilful misstatements.Perhaps, as there wereonce too few newspapers, there are now too many, and I should be in favourof a law forbidding any one to own more than one hundred and fifty newspapers.The Quarterly Review, hesays, puts forth the fewest new opinions and sells themost copies;the Westminster, the most and sells the fewest.THE FIRST ENGLISH NEWSPAPER, JULY 9, 1621.The progress of architectural and art criticism has likewise corresponded to the development of public taste, always in advance of it, yet always beingovertaken by it.It aims to furnish the American press with studies, editorials, news letterand Sunday feature stories, dealing with important stories about war conditions and war items about the trend of public opinion.The editor and the editorial belong to that period in the history of the press when the chief interest of the public in reading the newspaper lay in knowing what opinions it was right and wise to hold in regard to the great questions of the day.

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Defoe and the special correspondent.Hebe justified in doing so; but I have requested Mr.The Nation may review its books unfavorably.PrussianWar, 208; MSS.The author hadnever passed those gradations that lead to the knowledge of menand business: born to a narrow fortune, of no profession, conversant chiefly with books, and, if we believe some, so deficient inthe formalities of discourse, and the practices of ceremony, as inconversation to be scarce tolerable; unacquainted with the stileof any other than academical disputation, and so great a strangerto senatorial manners, that he never was within the walls ofeither house of parliament.Advocate, Vindicator, Champion, Defender, Monitor,Agitator, Awakener; Call, Gridiron, Muck Rake, Hot Blast, Crank,Critic, Boomerang.Wingate, Views and Interviews.

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He ought to possess the gift of tonguesto be conversant with all European languages, a neat assortment of the Asiatic languages, and a few of the African tongues,such as Abyssinian, Ashantee, Zulu, and Soudanese.Competitive commercial advertising is an anachronism in an age that boasts of its efficiency; emotional appeals110 A recent collective advertisement of thirty Chinese restaurants seemsto show that the opposition to the Chinese is at least not gastronomic.The type of war, whether civil war, rebellion against a homecountry, or a war of aggression, must always affect the type ofwar correspondence and therefore its authoritativeness.Columbia and Uncle Sam, Great Britain by Britanniaand John Bull, while Germany has been symbolized by theKaiser.Effect of headline on English language.

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Thepress can not rise higher than its source.Value of the editorialSeries of editorials.House to clear the galleries.Adirondack Tourist, emblem of, 51.Indices, newspaper, 111; Richmond on,1ΟΙ.It opens its columns for thediscussion of the curriculum and questions of general educationalpolicy, and it frequently maintains a department for settlingamong its subscribers their disputed questions of grammar,orthography, pronunciation, and similar vexing subjects.

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Moreover, the press libelled him withoutmercy, giving publication to the grossest falsehoods, and assigning theworst motives to those acts which proved to be the result of the mostconsummate judgment, the most profound forethought, and the purestpatriotism.Croker, then Secretary to the Admiralty, to the effect that noFrench journals whatsoever could be procured except throughsmugglers.Education as it is provided through normal, conventionalchannels has often been inadequate for satisfying the demandsof alert boys and girls and, especially before the recent development of interest in sports, athletics, and all forms of physicalrecreations, they have found an outlet for their mental energiesin establishing everywhere amateur journals that record both theirpresent interests and their future ambitions.In such circumstances almost everything depended onthe personal appeal made by the correspondent to those among whom hislot was cast.He stated to them his own views in regardto the undesirability of college education for women and then attemptedto force their acquiescence in them.Illustrations of games and of athletic contests are now from photographsthat show the whole event, both players and spectators; individual athletes are shown rather than drawings of any man running,or playing ball, or with wings on his feet; the symbolic and theconventional has changed to the specific and the individualillustration, while the individual is shown in relation to a largerwhole.It is again Henry James who probably bestexpresses the opinions of persons who object to being interviewed,and therefore unconsciously discloses one phase of the difficulties that beset the interviewer.

It is designed to visualize a field which is not coveredby newspapers, and to supplement the press reports, which, admirable asthey are, are frequently incomplete, inaccurate, and otherwise unsatisfactory, because of the difficult conditions under which they are assembledand printed.He had no use, in The Times at least, for the kind of review which aimsprimarily at displaying the airs and graces of the critic.The numbing of the critical faculty has its counterpart in thegeneral attitude of suspicion that prevails.To the universal demand for news has been added thedemand on the part of a limited but constantly increasing numberof readers that newsmust be authoritative.The Easle of Mansfields couldiers doe great hurt by roboFra Bansbo why 1611.

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But it must be rememberedthat it is possible to make a fetish of accuracy.Company a bitter description of the great power wielded by TheTimes at the time of the Crimean War.In the19 The Silk Association of America discussed fully in an advertisementthe question of the relative difference in the amount spent on clothes bymen and by women, and in the course of an elaborate argument urgedthat all tailored suits should be sewed with silk.Theinformation was given him by a doctor of the Army Medical Staff Corpsattached to the hospital, and was perfectly true, but the paragraph wasremoved because of objections raised by the censor and the Chief of Staff.Happily, while all this is possible, the materialization of these dangers seldom occurs.Turner who in 1843 edited theIllinois Statesman.

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In the war between Russia and Turkey, theDaily News had several correspondents in the field.The suggestions that have been made of its ultimatevalue to the historian through the infinite range of reconstructions of past time made possible by the press have presupposeda press under normal conditions.Howells on anonymous criticism.It does meanthat the newspaper as a whole must itself so understand and soconvey to its readers a sense of relationships, so respect valuesand relative proportions, and so discern the meaning of the timesthat its value will be rendered permanent.Despair must indeed come to the historian when he finds bothpress and government mutually questioning the reports givenby the other.Where the comparativestrength of the two sides has been in doubt, as in the questionsof equal suffrage and prohibition, the pros and cons have beenvigorously stated.

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Yet I doubt its success with thepublic if it appears as Mr.Syria, relief of, 338.New York Evening Post, November 19, 1904.From The Cornhill Magazine.Life and Times of WilliamHenry Smith, I, chap.Gladstone drawn for Punch by several of its artists.

To Authors and Publishers.These substitutes, he goes on to say, were first of all placards.Weyden anache new Towne on the Walduab, wharebe selues in theirrust cauſe.Butat least one practical journalist thought he knew otherwiseand Whitelaw Reid in an address before the faculty and students of New York University, April 4, 1872, urged preparationfor journalism as the most effectivemeans of raising the standardof the profession.It is, indeed, easy to fall into the habit of criticizing the press,it is the expected thing and often not to be taken more seriouslythan are generalizations about the weather of the past.

During the FrenchRevolution, the favorite French name for a newspaper wasJournal, while Zeitung is the most common name in Germany.On the other hand, the absolute truth as conveyed by correspondents may lead to international controversies, ministerialcomplications, and personal disaster to the correspondents.In turn, again, the very fact thatnews is printed, and that the press has at its command all theinventions of an inventive age tends to give news an importanceoften out of all proportion to its real value.The world is glad to see weakened a power whichhas been so much abused.Pemberton, Max, director of school ofjournalism, 460.The Edinburgh ReviewCarlyle, Napier, and JeffreyDickens and Mrs.

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But while in normal times newspapers are not bought and soldin the crude sense of the term, it is often said that editors, business managers, and the upper class of journalists are well paid,that they meet at social clubs and associate with capitalists,bankers, and men of wealth, and that they therefore unconsciously reflect the views of this class; to this extentthey do notrepresent the masses of the people.It is but a step from this form of deception to a deliberatemisrepresentation conceived with the definite idea of provingthatblack is white.Republican papermay carry a full page political advertisement of the Democratic party; a paper may advertise an obviously questionable financial project, report in itsnews column a suicide due to unwise investments, and editorially declaim against gold bricks; it may editorially urge itsreaders to patronize home industries while advertising the bargains offered in the nearest city, and the special trolley servicearranged to take advantage of them.Washington riot in 1919, has shownhow the negro feels in regard to national affairs, what his owngrievances are, as well as what are his hopes and his aspirations.Nicol, SantaClaus developedfrom, 402.James Macdonell was brilliantand able, a Liberal in politics anda vigorous opponent of all the policies that Disraeli stood for.

London correspondent of the New York Evening Post, January 28, 1911.The extent to which the illustrations of the press may be usedto reconstruct the past may again be tested through using thepress printed in a foreign language.You will be back by Easter, depend uponit, and you will have a pleasant trip.Of such stuff are historians made!Weekly that asked leading questions in regard to a recent American Ambassador and promised the answers to them in a forthcoming article.West whom a single trip across the Atlanticrenders an authority on the profoundest questions of contemporary interest.

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The fames Brothers Governeyefter aight by Hoteyn, fer them ou fire, andNainc many dead, the reſt vvill revcoge chefarge.Christmas advertising, generaladvertising, display advertising, nationalor international advertising, and they are true to their newspapercolors in sometimes indicating a preference for advertisementshaving news value.Lord Houghton was greatly interestedin the conduct of business in the House of Lords and at one timewrote an important letter on the subject to The Times.It seems possiblethat Jerdan has confused sending contributions to these papers with actualeditorial work.York City and State, but with examples from many other states.

Pascal, letters of, 107.So ended an adventure, entered upon in jest, pursued not withserious intent, and successful enough to leave behind it lasting memories;unlike all other journalistic enterprises in that it was unconcerned withfinancial aims, yet the pioneer of a great commercial enterprise and of anew element in our social life.Maps that illustratemilitary campaigns, explorations of previously unknown territories, and new boundary lines arranged by treaties are beinggiven great space.For what, after all, were their portraits of him but copies, withsome retouchings and ornamental appendages, of our grandEnglish original Picture of the German generally?While it is not possible to accept literally the criticismsmadeon the American press by European travelers, especially bythose who came during the nineteenth century, the aboundingsmall errors of the local reporter as read daily in the morning28 New York Evening Post, May 29, 1913.

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Introduction to the History of the Peace, I, cccciii.An important automobile company carried as an advertisement in thedaily press of November 27, 1918, two double columns of the history of thePilgrim Fathers.Max Eastman, Journalism versus Art, pp.Predictions of his disappearance.Special correspondencehas given rise to war correspondence that during war overshadowsthat branch of the press from which it has been developed.

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Sherman and war correspondents.Our Press is just now ringing with attacks uponthe Americans for supporting a trade in slander, and with whatconsistency can we throw the stone of this vulgar vice, the foulappetite of the craftiest minds, while so much of it exist in ourcommunity?Hale a most outspoken interview de omnibus rebus et quibusdam aliis.One of his biographersmuch extols these reports of Dr.Dasent, John Thadeus Delane, I, 55.

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Strong says that the Syracuse Journal in 1846 was the first paperto establish a local column.The interview is a comparatively modern field of journalisticenterprise.The Emperor William interview and the Century.No history of Napoleon is quite complete which fails to recognize Gillray as a potent factor in crystallizing public opinion inEngland.Press a sufferer from defective educational systems.Akin to this is the implication that works by unknown authors are to beneglected.

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In and of themselves they have added enormously to the complexity of thenewspaper and have to the same degree increased the difficultiesof the student of history in dealing with it as historicalmaterial.Workof Louis Klopsch, pp.During this period of personal journalism not only was the editor identified with the paper, but the paper was identified with the community.Frost, Thomas, provincial papers, delish, 354.Probably more than any other single agency it touchesevery other activity in human society, and in this lies its greatvalue in a reconstruction of the past.

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It must finally be evident that the errors are found, not inthe region reached by libel laws, but in the apparently harmlessdistricts where inaccuracy is of comparatively small moment.The illustration is thus ofservice not only in reconstructing the past but also in reconstructing the present.Life of Landor to Mrs.Reporters are often taken intothe confidence of governmental authorities and given importantinformation, although permitted to print only a specified amount,and this confidence has almost never been violated.Reasons for discrediting reviews.Raikes, Robert, fined, 161.

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Important expeditions financed by the press.Somuch in evidence is this side of the newspaper thatmany personshave been apprehensive lest it constitute a real danger to freedom of the press.The Whigs having called to their aidthe Dutch caricaturists, the Tories used their sketches to their own ends byslightly changing the figures.These have been verbatim reports, and not a word or a signof approval or of disapproval of the words spoken on the floorhas escaped the note books of the stenographers.McCabe, Life and Letters of George Joseph Holyoake, I, 160.

Special sources ofnews are found in the meetings of local legislative bodies and of different executive boards, as the board ofeducation, of public works, of public health, and of police commissioners; of the boards of trustees of museums, art galleries,universities, and other privately endowed institutions.But he now arrives by searchlight instead of by moonlight, he is called up by telephone, and his reindeer have inrecent years been transformed into an automobile and stillmore recently into an aeroplane.Creeds, papal bulls, decisions of religious bodies must beaccepted as authoritative sources in dealing with all questionsof religious belief and of ecclesiastical organization.When his despatcheshave passed the censor there is intolerable delay in forwardingthem.Excellcocie and after of the geocrallfand horſe and foote men ſtrong, and till more Souldiers!

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William Simpson was sent to Rome to illustrate the meeting of the Vatican Council in 1869.It may be witty, humorous or serious, dull, inspiring, orcolorless, but whatever the field it selects or the spirit in which itworks, it is collectively and in miniature a replica of the press as awhole.Both magazines andpublishers of books complain that the newspapers are moreattractive to writers and pay more than they can afford, whiletheir cheapness appeals to the readers.Pupa and be comiſchliencaa doc nothing in the treatie of peace, becauſe they ſoughn borders.Theentire work deals almost exclusively with political caricature.This exoteric side of the press and all its relations to external authority must be examined by the historian as well as the limitations arising from conditions within the press itself.Jesting behind someapparent forgeries.

Democrat has been called theinventor of the interview.Illustrated and written satire.The business management of entertainments like operas,theatres, and concerts in effect guarantees that the entertainments advertised will be given at the place, hour and price statedin the advertisement, and, with limitations, that the programmewill be given as announced.Downey, Edmund, on book reviews innewspapers, 293.Test of place of press in reconstruction.Ministers instead of being anxious to prefiguretheir measures through the press, and so preparing the publicmind for them, are jealous of being forestalled by it.

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Loud clattering, never shutting eye in rest of slumber sweet.After the sketch waspublished, he was told that a rule of the Church required every one to uncover his head, since the Blessed Sacrament was exhibited at the time onthe high altar and that it was to it they knelt and prayed.Court House, for the purpose of sendingthem out of the State for publication, previous to the conclusionof the trial, he would be proceeded against by the court as for acontempt.Confessions of a War Correspondent, pp.Smiles, Memoirs and Correspondence of the Late John Murray, 2 vols.

American colleges gave an interview to an undergraduate ina university open only to men.It is possible for all persons to be wise after the event, and inone or two conspicuous cases the small beginnings of what subsequently proved to be important matters were not noted in theAssociated Press dispatches.Bennett, during the Balkan campaign of 1912, assisted theTurkish authorities in their censorship of the press.The confessions of dramatic critics themselves often give interesting revelations of theirqualifications to act as such and of their conception of the dutiesinvolved.The press itself often invites letters from prominent menwhen questions of great moment are brought before the publicand it thus is able to record public opinion that in turn may beinterpreted through the editorial columns.The editorial as historical material.The critical essay is a permanent contribution to literature.

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Illustrative newspapers, however, from practically every state in the Union, and many from other countries, have been examined, and it is thus hoped that no undue basis will be found for the charge of generalizing from insufficient data.Is this all but universaldoubt justified, is it grossly exaggerated, is it entirely negligible?The problem is one for this Society and its fellow societies, and we cannot pretend tobe able even to suggest as yet a positive solution.Check out WITI to find out.Brahmins of the green benches.Norwegian press, in America.

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The place pictured is on a sixteen mile branch line along the sea coast andin no way connected with the Bagdad railway which was the subject of thepage of photographs.Short Sermons to Newsboys, pp.Londonnewspaper in the National Repository!Different artists even more than differentwriters have their own distinguishing characteristics.Tripoli are regarded with extreme dissatisfaction atBerlin and Vienna.

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Ford, Report of the Council, American Antiquarian Society, 1918.Somewhat similarly, as a result of the indiscretions of the warcorrespondent in the Boer War, individuals proposed plans forimproving the service that included the proposals that onlyrepresentatives of the great dailies, the illustrated weeklies, andcertain recognized agencies should be allowed to go to the front,and only men of proved ability be recognized as correspondents;that correspondents should not have the use of the wire, sinceits use was a temptation to bribery, and it kept the correspondent in one place when he should be witnessing engagements;that the control of the wires should be in the hands of one maninstead of being frittered away in lengths of fifty words; thatthe record of events should be given without comment by correspondents having both military knowledge and literary abilitybut without professional relations with those whose actions they86 New York Evening Post, April 25, 1914.Censor vexedly about one message he hadstopped.In time of war accounts given by the press do not always taliywith what other observers note.Here the historian finds a mass of material that bearsevidence of haste and inaccuracy.If the opinions of the press tend to be colorless, the news maytend to be colorless without the press necessarily being open tothe charge of suppressing the news.

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Tests to be applied to separate parts.Murphy, Essay on the Life andGenius of Dr.Marners goods out of the Quincible Call!Interest in reports varies with conditions.Criticism is toLiterature what legislation and government are to States.The type has becomefixed in common thought.When different groups have become unified, the press againmay exploit group hostility among different groups.

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The first volume was published in 1594and it contained a summary of important events from 1588 as they hadoccurred in France, Belgium, Spain, Italy, England, Germany, Polandand neighboring places.Theto use the reporters as tools in influencingneutral opinion was highly offensive.These are but slight intimations that, in homely phrase, theshoe must fit the foot.It must be put to the credit of the press that the verypapers that expose these conditions, as far as they really exist,are helping to improve them through the publicity the discussionof them gives.Errors of judgment will always be found,yet the historian must regard these as personal and not to beattributed to the newspaper as such.Other errors may be classified as those coming from taking information at second hand or from the imperfect informationgained over the telephone.

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Preparedness from Many Pulpits.Baron von Bissing gave an interview, justifying thedeportations of Belgians, to the Berlin correspondent of the NewYork Times and a French translation with the comment of theNorth German Gazetteent wwas published in the Brussels papers.It is often said that much of the welfare work carried on bythe press, particularly that of collecting funds for charitablecauses, is done with an eye to publicity.October 31, 1914, the New York Evening Sun and the New York Mailboth published the same picture on their front pages.See series running in the New York Evening Post, November, 1916, and continuously for some weeks afterward.Differences between contemporaneous and later criticismChanges in critics.

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It must be obvious that here also no categorical answer can be given, since the answer must be conditioned by the time, country, and characteristics of the paper inwhich it appears.But the curb was put upon the enthusiastic leader writer, withhis strong humanitarian views, and he had to see the paper withwhich he was identified taking a course of which he could notapprove.Daily press, December, 1916.The historian, however, finds similar restraints on all othermeans of expressing or of influencing public opinion.In appreciation of Mr.

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This gives essentially a distorted view, and ithas a distinctive purpose.New York Evening Post, May 3, 1912.It was a double page cartoon representing theelephant riding over Cleveland.CRITICISM AND THE CRITICprocesseswhich we apply to themen and events of two thousandyears ago?Etheredge, Sir George, 318.Reporter, 48; nickname of, 50.

It must be recognized with equal frankness that certain religious denominations are everywhere advocating the use of thepress as a means of increasing their membership, their churchattendance, and their Sunday collections.Magazine appealed to the readingpublic, the Athenaeum to those who wished counsel, and theKnickerbocker and the New England Magazine to sectional interests.These news syndicates were enjoined by the decree from selling below cost or otherwiseunfairly competing.The carbon and the paper of the nouvelliste were theancestors of the modern illustrator.General limitation of illustration.For all ordinary purposes, however, the exchanges found in any newspaper office, even the smallest, will repay careful study.

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The special correspondent in South Africa.Spingarn gives a chronological table of the chief critical works of thesixteenth century.It was an internecine war to be continued henceforth without intermission throughout his life.Such external laws asdirectly affect it, as libel laws, are purely negative and prohibitory and in no sense afford a standard of belief or of conduct.The Tribune therefore installed its own delivery system and, through supplyingthe newsdealers directly, enabled citizens to understand both theTribune, and the Hearst side of a great public question.Delane kept the enemy acquainted with all that wasgoing on, is merely to say that the satisfaction of the public demand forwar news may have dangers as well as its refusal.

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If Punch during the recent war showed an impatience with America for not earlier entering the war, butthrew the blame of it on the president, Life showed Americaand England smoking the pipe of peace.Miller, Hugh, quoted, 249.His answer is inferential, but that newspapers havepersonality admits of no doubt.When a half dozen national learned societies holdtheir meetings in the same city during the same week, the pressgives extensive reports of the societies whose deliberations arepresumably of interest to its readers while it may barely mentionthemeetings of other organizations no less important.Kladderadatsch and, 409.

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Reuter, Paul Julius, agency organizedby, 118.The Times and the Napoleonic wars.Sir, I knowEngland is governed by public opinion and that the Timesmakes a great deal of it.IOIInterest of education in the press.Changes in business administration.Artemus Wardand Bill Nye, Josh Billings and Doesticks, Nasby, Alden, Mr.

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Poland and orher ChriftianCountries, that they would graunt ſomeade, to direct himThis day the Rheingrates Orusios 10.Vermont Legislature suggests would rob newspaperwork ofmost of its terrors.The first English literary periodical appeared as farback as 1680, but it seems to have been scarcely more than acatalogue of books appearing from month to month.Public Record Office, establishment of,12.Others are givenextra support by those interested in the special cause the paperwas founded to promote, but such papers are thus not newspapers, but rather organs of a propaganda, of a trade, or of asingle idea, and often are excellent illustrations of missionaryzeal in the cause of Church or State.

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The specialcorrespondent must be so constituted as to remain poor, andwillingly, so long as he sticks to newspaper work.Similar tendencies in the political press.In his endeavor towrite history in the round the historian must read the recordsof contemporary interests if he is to understand and to interpretthe spirit of an age, and he may quite as often find these recordsin material that in and of itself is trivial, unreliable, exaggeratedor grossly untrue as in material that has borne every test submitted for authenticity and authoritativeness.President, 77andthe establishment of a National Newspaper Window DisplayWeek.Braille, newspapers in, 12.Thosefrom whom interviews are specially desired are unwilling toconcede them and the views of those willing or anxious to grantThe interview is distrusted because of its form.

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Trainsalways get to Chicago on time.Other periodicals do notcarry illustrations because of the large disbursements involvedand they prefer to turn their expenditures into other channels.The correspondents, as I have already explained, were givenno recognized status; they had to trust to their own wits, luck and daring,to maintaintheir position; but their proceedings and correspondencewere otherwise unfettered.The sense of proportionin the two papers varied, and the event proved that the paper giving theless space to it had the better judgment.Beekman Town will beDry.Unfamiliarity withstrange languages makes communication sometimes uncertain.Often these emblems represent abstractideas, as the scales of justice, the horn of plenty, the Americaneagle, a national, state, or municipal shield or coat of arms, orthey may be scenes that never were on land or sea.

New York Times, September 11, 1921.Men in authority are alert to notice changes in the public pulseand an interview given may be quickly repudiated, or disavowedif it is felt to be too divergent from public opinion.Froissart, quoted, 195; war correspondent, 195.The advertising world is peopled with characters as wellknownas are those of the real world 9 and even the animals assume asemblance of real life.General restraints shared with other activities.

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Repudiation by owners of charge of interference.The circumference of the circle enlarges as the radius isprolonged.John Wilkes and parliamentary reporting.Shaw whoalone among critics places the responsibility frankly on the press.Immigration, states invite, 343; Garfield and Chinese, 418.Thecritics indeed took themselves and their work most seriously.

Each has its advantages and the historian must there rest the question.Newspapers may be characterized by independence of views, an independence either real or simulated.The press does for themost part give the facts faithfullyand well, as has been indicated in the numerous direct and indirect guarantees, voluntary and compulsory, given in, by, andfor the press.Pepys, Samuel, 318, 324.But untilwarfare ceases to be, it seems probable that the war correspondent will not pass.Lee, History of American Journalism, pp.Much of the sametype of editorial as regards both choice of local subjects, and styleof writing, as is seen in the selected editorials of William Leggett,is found in a contemporary English work entitled: Spirit of theMetropolitan Conservative Press: Being a Selection of the BestLeading Articles from the London Conservative Journals during theyear 1839.

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It is easy to understand why the war correspondent seemseverywhere to be persona non grata to those in authority.See Foreignlanguage press.Charge that enemy profits by news sent.Their use wascoincident with the invention of printing, but the illustrationthat in the early history of printing was a prominent feature ofthe title page of the book has, in the periodical, been transferredto the cover, or it has become an important part of the text, ora still more important part of the advertising column.Criticismsmade of the Associated Press.

She is afriend of the Webmaster of this site.New York Times, February 8, 1918.The world did very well without him once, and will do soagain.The press as a business enterprise.New York Times, May 24, 1915.Having once revealed the secret, Dr.Sun,Sunbeam, Moon, Star; Evening, Morning, or Rising Star; EasternStar, Western Star, Meteor, Comet, Planet; Zenith, Eclipse, Crescent, Globe, Cosmos, World; Blizzard, Tornado, Avalanche, Breeze,Lake Breeze, Ocean Breeze; as also his friendly relationship withanimal life, Bee, Bee Hive, Hornet, Wasp, Eagle, Eagle Eye,Pelican, Cricket, Black Cat, Buck, Elk, Tiger, Rooster, Hawkeye.

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The place of the broadside inaffecting as well as in recording public opinion in Massachusettsduring the Civil War has been convincingly shown.Thesituation was scarcely improved when later an eminent connoisseur of literature could imply that criticism is to be temperedby the temporal distress of the person whose work is to bereviewed.Archibald Forbes and his conception of the idealwar correspondent.United Statesare those which have the reputation of being already ready, on a questionof real principle, to snap the green withes with which politicans wouldbind them.An examination of the typical illustrated periodicals that areconclusions are justified.Hemay besent to a foreign country whose language he neither understandsnor speaks and again presumably he hears and sees and reportswhat his interpreterwishes to have heard, seen, and reported, andthus absolutely contradictory letters concerning the same situation may be sent by different correspondents to their respectivepapers.History of Criticism, III, 421.

The editor has his difficulties with the artistic temperament.And the ideal war correspondent?The New York Evening Post opens its library to the use of students.Extension of newspaper plant.Fiji Islands, newspapers of, 487.

Even thecaricature, until the outbreak of the war of 1914, was beingmore and more confined to its legitimate field of depicting objectionable principles or abstractions and was seldom directedagainst individuals unless they consciously and perniciouslyrepresented base principles of action.The Dutiesand Practice of Journalism.The illustrator who satirizes modern society shows how universal and apparently fundamental are certain human characteristics; the braggart, the snob, the tuft hunter, the flunkey, the poseur, the social climber, the miser, the spendthrift, the slacker in peace as well as in war, know neither time nor country.These characteristic of American and British press.Morley, Henry, on dramatic criticism,323.Whythis has been so has sometimes been understood by the Germansthemselves.

Life in London and The Observer.The part is notequal to the whole, but an examination of the illustration and ofthe graphic press must show that in and of itself it has independently the same characteristics as has the press considered collectively; it has the same problems to meet and its relation to thepublic is the same.Automobiles do their share the list is endless.It sent Henry Crabb Robinson to Germanyand to Spain and later it made him its foreign editor.The coal situation, conservation of food, schoolaccommodations are subjects that respect neither social clubsnor tenements.Biglow Papers, and thenumerous volumes of Mr.The longer it is deferred the worse it becomes.

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Even after the great London fire of 1666, the offer ofthe London Gazette to publish the new business locations of thosewho had been burned out met with little response.But Austria, France, Germany, Italy,and the United States at that time used the system of officialreporting, while several of the smaller British provinces providedfor their legislative reporting through a contract system.The reporter is sometimes compelled to be forehanded andhe may send in a provisional account with a later confirmationor alteration and thus occasional errors arise.Officials of all grades,when mentioned at all, were spoken of in terms of the mostfulsome flattery.Delane of The Times.

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Before the historian is ready to admit the newspaper into theinner circle of his friends and allies, he must have unimpeachableassurance of its veracity and trustworthiness.It shall bethe general policy of this association that its news service mustbe handled without bias for or against the principles of theseveral groups represented by themembership.Germany theinfluence of the government has given opportunity for wide useof the press for propagandist purposes, these varying tendenciesdo not diminish the value of the press to the historian, but theydo make his use of it infinitely more complicated.Sweden, a Hearstnewspaper a breach of promise suit, an Ochs newspaper a railwaymerger.Hischief equipment for the work may have been his own impellingdesire to become a war correspondent.

White, Biennial Report of Bureau ofAccuracy and Fair Play, 1915.The headline in the American newspaper is perennially discovered by foreign travellers and is deemed by them the moststriking feature of the American press.It has been said that the Crimean War was the first in whichnewspaper correspondents were in the field.Gaultier hasso well shown, 29 caricature is essentially pessimistic; if it represents, while it distorts but always with an ulterior motive; ifit is exaggerated, grotesque and extravagant as well as brutal,it is because in society itself there exist these same elements ofpessimism, exaggeration, and brutality.Easter, advertisements of, 477.Window and Store Display.It hadits agents and correspondents everywhere searching for news.

Differences of opinion in 1916 between the New Republic andits financial supporters in regard to candidates for the presidencyled to an open letter from its chief financial supporter stating thatits owners exercised no supervision over the editorial columns ofthe paper.Walsh under thetitle Abraham Lincoln and the London Punch.Just when the aforetimereputable Press has learnt the lessonof indecency, the controllers of the popular Press have learnt theinformation pays; that an irresponsible sensational manner nolonger makes a sensation; that newsmust be news; that authoritywhat knowledge we are to glean from the blundering lies, or the tiresometruths about thunder storms, that, strange to tell!Every local paperwishes to be the first to announce the important decision, andhence it is extremely careful to say nothing against these individuals or against their interests.The only evidence shecould have had was the illustration of the dance, witnessed by the artist andthe Prince of Wales because a member of the suite of the Prince had informed them that the dancing much resembled an Indian nautch.Life of Thomas Ruddiman, pp.

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Sir Oracle and when I ope my lips let no dog bark.London papers did notknow of it for three days.So widely has it been assumed, and with apparent reason, thatthe owner of a paper attempts to control its editorial policy thatassurances to the contrary have almost the appearance of ostentatious protests.Functions of early war correspondents.The general complaint in the coffeehouses for some time has been that there is nothing in the papers.The congratulations were printed in bold type in a prominent place.

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Glances Back Through Seventy Years,I, chap.Thedepartment stores urged their customers not to return merchandise, to carry small packages, not to ask for specialdeliveries,to shop in the morning, and in many other ways attempted toindicate fundamental business principles for the benefit ofthoughtless shoppers.Efforts of press to secure authoritativeness.These illustrations have been suggested to indicate that thetask of the historian is often not to ascertain what the press says,but to go behind the face of the returns and to determine why itsays what it says, when it says it, and what is the effect of whatit has said.The change in literary style has been equally pronounced.Since the close of thewarmuch of this information in regard to ancestry, previous life,and future plans has been retained.Charles II, when a disorganized public opinion was being played upon and exploited by themost scandalous journalism which this country has ever known.

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He must have at once the broadestand the finest power of observation, and the vocabulary andfacility that are the bases of expression and freedom with hispen.The editorial of thesame paper, especially if scrutinized by an editorial board, mayin the same issues show in spirit a tendency to lag behind thenews, to be conservative and even timid and reactionary inexpressing opinions concerning the effect of the news published inits own columns.His own letters to theLondon Times explained that the disasters of the Italians were due to theweakness of Charles Albert.But the principle is not new.Until a comparatively recent period, the parliamentary reporterapparently shared with his fellow journalists outside of St.The cartoon is less prominent in countries where arisk is incurred in printing cartoons of the monarch, or ofpoliticalparties that do his bidding, or of the court life by which he issurrounded.

This shows the progressmade in the arrangementof the paper sincethe appearance of the first number the previous December.Whateverform the emblem may take, it adds one more noteworthy featureto the personality of the press.This notice, writtenoriginally by a strong admirer of Mr.The advertisement as it appeared in the American Machinist, May 6,1915, threatened to lead to international entanglements, but the investigations of the Department of Commerce showed that the advertisementrelated, not to themanufacture of poisonous shells, which would have beena contravention of the Hague convention, but to that of machinery to beused in such production.That the Associ14 The letter is given in full in the New York Evening Post, March 17,1915.

If at an earlier date the Quarterly Review mercilesslyattacked Keats and Leigh Hunt, at a later period the SaturdayReview turned its gunson all thingsAmerican.John Dunton and Defoe.Maxwell gives an important account of newspaper distribution,especially of the distribution of The Times.It has been made repeatedly bythe press itself, although never in the form of a confession, andit has been scarcely less frequently made by individual journalistsboth in public and in private.The illustration is given in the Illustrated London News, December 15, 1866.The Government haveforbidden it, and the newspapers are filled every day with letters of noticeto this and that person, from the Cologne police authorities warning themnot to attend, and the answers.

After two years, however, thecase was dismissed by the court.Isit strange that he thought the necessity of an official report wasobviated by the very full reports given in The Times?It gives its subscribers much information in regard to domesticand foreign postal rates for newspapers, and in regard to the bestways of remitting money for subscriptions or advertising.From Nera66 13 of lame1671.Oliphant, Annalsof a Publishing House, I, 173.

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